The implication here is that the musicians/organisational members, must subsume themselves into the whole and, rather than perceive of themselves as individuals, see themselves as integral parts of the unit, complimenting and completing the whole.
While there tends to be a dearth in the literature on symphony orchestra management, the few sources which were located for this research unanimously attested to the complexity of managing a symphony orchestra and held the conductor as an exemplification of the total quality manager (Morgan, 1980; Chong, 2000; Rentschler, 2002). Not only is he entirely responsible for the management of orchestra members, musicians, towards the execution of a perfectly timed and completely harmonious and faultless musical performance but his responsibilities include organisational visioning, strategic direction, audience development and fundraising. To be effective, the musical leader/conductor of the orchestra must possess a combination of skills, the most significant of which appear to be artistic and musical skills, organisational skills, and charismatic leadership (Morgan, 1980).
Proceeding from the above stated, and as may have been deduced from the foregoing, this research will establish the extent to which effective leadership and efficient management are integral to success, looking at the case of symphony orchestras.
2 Symphony Orchestra as Organisation
The operations and performances of the symphony orchestra have always been expensive. In earlier decades, when orchestras presented their unpaid bills at the end of a season, wealthy patrons wrote personal checks to cover the costs. As generations progressed, patronage was no longer a reliable source of financial security, and local corporations stepped up to help with the burden (Holland, 2003). Organisational power was placed into the hands of a Board of Directors culled from the elite patrons (Couch, 2005).
As a cultural institution, the symphony orchestra is a collective organisation of diverse groups committed to preserving a vital part of cultural heritage. Through the collaboration and commitment of musicians, administrators, volunteers and patrons, the orchestral organisation protects the viability and strength of symphonic music. Nearly every role in the orchestral organisation demands a combination of high-level skills in music as well as the logistics of production and management.
Behaviour in modem orchestras is deeply institutionalised, growing out of practices and traditions that began more than a century ago. With large infrastructures to support, little room for financial errors, and ambiguous leadership structures, orchestras