Athens Olympic stadium

Case Study
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The Athens Olympic stadium was first inaugurated in 1982 at the 13th European Athletics Championships and hosted a number of international athletic and cultural events, before being refurbished for the Athens Olympic Games of 2004. The renovation of this stadium was assigned to the world-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava.


The immense size of the project and its particular technical complexity were the causes for long delays; the work was finally completed in time and the new captivating stadium was officially reopened on July 30, 2004 (O.A.K.A. 2005).
The Athens Olympic stadium roof in the form of a double bowstring tied arch of 80 m high is considered one of the most ingenious modern architectural and engineering projects. This impressive construction of steel and glass is today one of the city's landmarks. Along with its spectacular and pioneering architectural design, the suspended arched roof construction and erection has been a challenge to engineers and an excellent example of integration of construction engineering and hydraulic expertise (Siriani & Di Silverio 2006).
The roof structure is in two halves, each comprising a top arch of a diameter of 3.25 m and a lower torsion tube of a diameter of 3.6 m extending for 304 m over the stadium. The wall thicknesses of the tubes are up to 95 mm. All four tubes merge at their ends and are based on four support steel shoes (19 m x 4 m x 4 m) made from 100 mm thick steel plates. The tubes support wire cables that hold polycarbonate panels of a weigh of 17,000 ton in total. ...
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