Tourism brings rather influential customers to Southern countries, potentially a significant market for local business and an engine for home sustainable economic growth. Between 1985 and 1995 typical gross receipts for each tourist arrival raised by 75%.
Thus tourism has become a vital sector for developing countries aiming to take advantage of foreign exchange earnings, increasing employment and securing economic wealth and to protect natural and national traditions.
World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) estimation show that travel, tourism and associated activities will add 11% to the world's GDP, rising to 12% by 2010. The tourism industry is at present estimated to create 7.8% of the total labor force. This percentage is projected to rise to 8.6% by 2012. The tourism industry is also the world's largest employer and make up over 255 million jobs, or 10.7% of the global workforce (WTTC, 2002).
Tourism has facilitated to produce millions of jobs in developing countries. For instance official estimation for suggest China has 51.1 million jobs related to tourism and India 23.7 million jobs. In terms of the comparative significance of various sectors for job creation, the largest suppliers of jobs in travel and tourism services are found in island states and destinations - ranging from 76.3% of the total number of people engaged in Curacao, to 34.6% employed in Antigua and Barbuda. The top ten countries with greatest projected comparative increase in employment over the next couple of decades are all developing countries. Vanuatu is expected a yearly growth rate of 8.8% in employment and leads the list. The balance of benefits begins to lean toward the developed countries in terms of tourist exports and capital investments, in fixed terms.
Sustained Tourism: Issues, Progress & Challenges
Some of the key issues and challenges related to tourism are outlined below:
Tourism & the Environment:
The natural environment is a significant source for tourism. With increased urbanization, destinations in both industrialized and developing countries with significant natural features, scenery, cultural heritage or biodiversity are becoming increasingly common places for tourist destinations. Efforts to preserve and enhance the natural environment should therefore be a high precedence for the industry and for governments. However the truth is not quite as unambiguous. Environments where a past human relationship has been negligible are usually weak. Small islands, coastal areas, swamps, mountains and deserts, all now fashionable as tourist places, are five of the six 'fragile ecosystems' as recognized by Agenda 21 that necessitate particular action by governments and international donors. The biophysical features of these homes frequently make them especially vulnerable to harm from human activities. As the level of tourism increases, the resources use endangers become indefensible. With a ruined physical surroundings,