The Effects of Sense of Belonging, Social Support, Conflict, and Loneliness on Depression by Bonnie Hagerty and Reg Williams, Nursing Research

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Yes. The purpose of the study was clearly stated as to examine the model of effects of the interpersonal phenomena of sense of belonging, social support, loneliness, and conflict on depression, and to describe the predictive value of sense of belonging for depression in the context of other interpersonal phenomenon.


The references are not very recent as far as the time of publication of this research paper is concerned (1999). The most recent reference quoted it self is from 1996. Only five references are mentioned which were published in the last five years. Similarly fifteen references (including the above mentioned five) were mentioned in the last ten years of publication year.
Yes. The author explained that several research studies have been conducted in effect of biological factors on depression. Lot of researchers worked on effect of sense of belonging on depression. Similarly some researchers worked on relation between loneliness and depression. However clarity has not been developed on psychological factors affecting depression. Similarly there has been little research information available on the extent to which the belonging, social support, loneliness and conflict are predictive of depression.
a. Is the framework explicitly expressed or must the reviewer extract the framework from implicit statements in the literature review No. There has been no organized frame work for explicit expression of interconnection of inter personal processes and depression. ...
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