To answer this question it is necessary to examine the nature of HRM and its role in strategic organizational development and planning. Whilst top management must always accept the need for innovation there is still the decision as to which opportunities it wishes to develop in relation to its resources and those it chooses not to pursue. An effective business strategy depends upon the successful management of opportunities and coordination of HR in order to create a competitive advantage. Taking into account that HRM is not an independent part of business, it is possible to assume that HRM is a strategic activity aimed to respond effectively to changes and business transformations. The basis strategic HRM is that every manager is given a clear idea of the results expected.
The human resources function is now highly specialized and perhaps can be said to be at the centre of conflict between labour and capital. They in effect operate on the 'boundary' between the workforce and the organization.
Human resource management is that part of the process of management that is concerned with the maintenance of human relationships and ensuring the physical well-being of employees so that they give the maximum contribution to efficient working. It is obviously closely related to the management process as a whole and each functional manager and supervisor applies the principles effectively. Departmental managers, by effective leadership, ensure human resources policy is adhered to and department activities are successfully carried out. Michael Armstrong (2003) proposes the following definition of HRM:
" the concept of HRM could be regarded as a philosophy governing how employees should be treated in the interests of the organization. But this philosophy can be applied in many different ways and there is no single model which can be used to describe HRM (p 23)"
A logical approach to the consideration of this function is to look first of all at the problem of overall company organization and manpower planning, then the operations necessary to implement the plan, that is, recruitment and selection, training and development, and wage and salary administration. Other aspects of human resource management include industrial relations and the law of employment, welfare and safety, and other employee services.
The importance is that the process of HRM is extremely important and continues to advance rapidly and change becomes imperative. When an organization develops a highly committed work force, coupled with enlightened management, its self-managed multifunction teams will be able to take on the challenges of the future (Price, 2004).
Driven Forces of Strategic Intent to Planning
Social Change as a Driven Force of Strategic Intent in HRM
Social change creates new HR policies and training needs. For example, as more people travel abroad and experience the high levels of customer service in North America and the Far East they become more demanding in their expectations for customer service at home. As a further example, in society women's right to occupy jobs at the highest levels in companies and institutions. Both these examples indicate the need for HR training, the first in customer care skills and the second in management skills for women. In this situation, training is a strategic tool of the entire organization realized