People engaged in the fight for conservation, in a worthy and patriotic cause, most often try to sully their reputation by opposition, and the dramatic fervor of such opposition has constituted a major liability. It is also important to recognize that conservation neither arose from a broad popular outcry nor centered its fire on the private corporations which have often supported conservation policies. "Conservation, above all, was a scientific movement, and its role in history arises from the implications of science and technology in modern society. Conservation leaders sprang from such fields as hydrology, forestry, agrostology, geology, and anthropology It is from the vantage point of view of applied science, rather than of democratic protest, that one must understand the historic role of the conservation movement." (Hays, 1999, p 2). Therefore, conservation issues have historically offered topics of debates and one of the ongoing political controversies in the United States since 1977 has been the debate concerning oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). ...
Debates over conservation issue concerning drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge have a pertinent role in the understanding of Hays's view that one must understand the historic role of the conservation movement from the vantage point of view of applied science, rather than of democratic protest. The debates over this conservation issue have been in place ever since President Jimmy Carter approved a bill in 1980 for the approval of the Congress to allow drilling in ANWR. It has been one of the most-widely used issues as political device, by both the Democrats and the Republicans. The major argument against the drilling in the 1002 area of ANWR is that it would potentially harm the natural wildlife in the area, especially the calving ground of the Porcupine caribou, whereas the supporters of oil exploration in the region highlight the amount of economically recoverable oil, relating to the world oil markets.
The major arguments in favor of oil drilling in the 1002 area of ANWR underlie some basic assumptions about 'Nature' and economic growth and the debates concerning the topic illustrate that the wise use of natural resources may be either technical or largely political. According to the supporters of oil drilling in ANWR, it could radically lower the price of oil, which can lead to a major economic boom, and it can be effective measure to lessen the nation's dependence on foreign oil, particularly in the Middle East. As opposed to the arguments of the critics of the procedures, they maintain that drilling could be done without disrupting the sanctuary or damaging the environment. Similarly, it can considerably help the