Increasingly, the rights of groups such as immigrants (transnationals) came to the forefront of sociological discourse, and the "politics of identity" were at one time seen as constraining the solidarity of the welcoming states sense of citizenship and democracy. New ways of understanding the world were emerging (Mills & Wright, 1992; Robinson, 2001).
However, a contrasting viewpoint approached globalization as a positive change in the concept of democracy, and a positive end to the nation-state. At the same time multiculturalists advocated that minority rights were of importance and integrationists lobbied for solidarity of values and national aspirations, regardless of a citizen being an immigrant or a person born into the state. The argument focused on the concept of national identities being outdated. This approach stated that states will become less able to influence and regulate its immigrants, and in turn the groups will cease to consider themselves, and to be viewed as disadvantaged minority groups. This paper will review the concepts of culture and immigration with regard to public boundaries and cultural adaption, using Anderson's (2006) thesis as a filter to reinterpret the immigration issue in the 21st century. Firstly, the effects of globalization on immigration and culture shall be presented. Secondly, social being in the forms of private and background cultures will be discussed. Next, the effect of immigrant culture on the socialization of children will be outlined. Finally a conclusion shall synthesize the main points and demonstrate that culture and immigration are undergoing change in the new millennium.
Globalization Effects on Immigration and Culture
Current discourse on immigration notes that closed societies and the concept of a homogenized culture within a nation will limit a state's ability to compete in global markets, or to draw capital from foreign investment. This is because a global marketplace constrains state governments in their implanting regulatory economic policies, advocating instead, negotiated trade agreements that take consideration of many nations. Following the Cold-War and the fragmentation of many Central and Eastern nations, there has been an increase in attempts to constrain traditional approaches to trade and politics, which promoted sovereignty, and a shift toward flexible boarders and more collaborative decision making among states. The rapid advances in technology have provided wider access to information, skills and competencies, as well as decreased the cost of travel, which in turn has aided immigration as an option for seeking work, stable family life, or just general well-being. Hence, the boundaries between "immigrant" and "native" have become blurred globally. In turn this breakdown of boundaries has promoted new ways of celebrating and practicing culture.
A transational sphere of society is created that extends and limits opportunities for immigrants (Smith, 2003). This occurs through the establishment of "diasporic membership" new political participation for immigrants within their receiving nation and their home state. The