Further, such planning gives the organization an opportunity to prepare to meet that future in a more proactive manner.
In both case studies, training and development programs are the main tools which ensure participation and involvement of staff. Following Armstrong and Baron, training is much more than a technical exercise to impart knowledge and skill to the worker. It is first and foremost a point of contact among a worker's need to grow, to feel capable, to be respected for what he or she can do, and management's need for productivity. If the task bank is present at that point of contact, it can provide a shared interpretation and understanding of what training is required as well as how and when that training can be best delivered (Bateman and Snell 32). The organization then makes the investment in training required for worker competency. In return, the worker brings the flexibility and willingness to apply these newly acquired competencies to the inevitable problems and challenges on the job. A partnership develops that, if nurtured through the words and deeds of management, further reinforces the trust that is required for a quality product or service. The case of Capgemini UK plc shows that continuous training is a core of effective performance and cooperation. All officers receive training throughout their term; also the company proposes special training programs for new starters. The Scottish Prison service arranges regular training for SPS managers and TUS representatives in order to develop positive and effective relations (Armstrong and Baron 82).
In both cases, counseling and coaching are a part of involvement and participation process. in both organizations, counselors and managers are used for dealing with more personal issues, such as helping managers to resolve problems of relationships with their staff or other organization members. The advantages and disadvantages are similar to those for coaching. Both are very dependent on the skill of the coach or the counselor and on the willingness of the individual to acknowledge possible deficiencies and their willingness to work at improving them. Following Bateman and Snell, many organizations now assign senior and experienced managers to act as mentors to more junior staff. The idea is that the experienced individual will pass on their knowledge and skills and act as a general 'guide, philosopher and friend' to the junior (Bateman and Snell 32). This sort of arrangement has, of course, been common in organizations on an informal basis for many years. Most successful managers can identify someone, usually fairly early in their career, whom they admired and from whom they learnt much of their skill. Sometimes this is simply from observation. In other cases the senior fairly deliberately developed the other as a sort of protg (Armstrong and Baron 89). More formal mentoring programs are intended to place this relationship on an open and more clearly defined basis. Mentoring can be an effective method for developing staff, but depends on the commitment, skill and knowledge of the mentor. A good mentor will provide both coaching and counseling. A poor one will have very little effect. Hence if mentoring is going to be used