131). When Japanese firms, as suggested by the two authors, face similar institutional forces, they have developed different levels of the organizational capabilities required to effectively use their resources in international competition. In most Japanese Firms, the HR or the firms' resources and capabilities emphasizes the management of the internal environment of the firm as a key to competitiveness. These are called "the fixed, firm-specific input factors of production.
The subject organizational learning has been of frequent study in the literature as a system that significantly assists the survival of small firms. In United Kingdom's manufacturing firms, it has been studied that entrepreneurial firms use higher-order (or double-loop) learning. Moreover, it has been also found that higher-order learning greatly influences definite managerial competencies. Firms were able to manage information more effectively than non-entrepreneurial firms.
In persuading small firms to increase their commitment to employee and organizational development, the UK government has adopted the philosophy of organizational learning (Fryer 1997). ...
This is the Lifelong Learning that is composed and implemented in four policy initiatives: New Deal, the University for Industry, Individual Learning Accounts, and the National Grid for Learning. Even though these methods proved to offer benefits, some authors still suggest to add the caution that there is very limited empirical data in the academic literature to substantiate any claims about how and why organizational learning actually contributes towards enhancing organizational performance (Badger et al. 2001).
National Differences: Does it matter
With the rise of globalization and internationalization of businesses, comes a challenge of a potential culture collision. Firms involve in the international business have the tendency to retain many aspects of their original national culture bias in their global trades. As a result, firms should look forward to ever more cross-cultural exchanges in striving to reach agreements that are both understandable and meaning to both negotiators.
For an international business to prosper, it has to successfully manage and anticipate the impact of cultural differences prior to venturing. National difference is an intangible factor that might cause Multinational Firms to either be successful or otherwise. Misunderstanding and misinterpretations are just two things that are inevitable in cross-cultural dealings and thus require proper conflict management. Even though most international joint ventures succeed, it can never be denied that cultural factors still continue to surface and cause problems in more understated and indirect ways. In joint ventures, it becomes the problem of the managers in resolving everyday conflicts with coworkers from other