StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

T cellB cell collaboration in the immune response to infection - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
T cellB cell collaboration in the immune response to infection

It is referred to as "non-specific" because it generally attempts to stop the spread of all types of invaders. (Kuby, 1996)
The latter type consists of two categories: cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity. It is the stronger one of the two types but takes several hours or even days to become fully activated. It is referred to as "specific" because it responds differently to every other foreign pathogen. (Hariharan, 2006)
Lymphocytes, a class of White Blood Cells, are a vital part of the acquired immune system, being responsible for the whole reaction. They are produced in the primary lymphoid organs and then migrate to the secondary lymphoid organs where they recognize antigens of foreign bodies by the help of membrane receptors specific to the antigens. Two major classes of lymphocytes take part in the acquired immunity: B-Cells (B lymphocytes) and T-Cells (T lymphocytes). (Alberts, Bray, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Watson, 1994), (Linnemeyer, 1993)
Precursors of T-cells originate in the foetal liver and yolk sac during the embryonic life, and migrate to the bone marrow after birth. The stem cells then enter the thymus by chemo taxis and develop into T-cells which are later specialized into CD4+ (helper) cells or CD8+ (cytotoxic) cells. (UNC-SOM, 2004)

On entering the thymus, T-cell precursors (prothymocytes) develop into T-cells that indicate both CD4 and CD8 molecules on their membranes and then later continue to indicate either CD4 or CD8 molecules. The cells having antigen receptors for self proteins are destroyed by aptosis (programmed cell death). This prevents autoimmunity. On the other hand, the cells having antigen receptors that do not react with self MHC proteins are also killed as this causes the definite selection of T-cells that do react with MHC proteins. (Stadnyk, 2007)
Functions of the MHC proteins include positive selection of T-cells as well as presentation of foreign body antigens to them. (NIAID, 2003)
General Function
The Helper T-cells activate lymphocytes called macrophages and other T-cells involved in the immune response, and aid B-cells in producing antibodies by alerting them and determining the type of antibody to be produced. (NIAID, 2003)

2) B-Cells:
Precursors of B-cells migrate from the foetal liver to the bone marrow where they remain and undergo maturation throughout the adult life. They do not require thymus for their development. (Levinson, 2004)
Development of B-cells takes place in two phases: antigen-independent phase & antigen-dependent phase.
In the 1st phase, stem cells of the marrow differentiate into B-lineage and progenitor B-cells. The progenitor B-cells proliferate into precursor B-cells which requires the microenvironment supplied by the surrounding stroma. Cells of the stroma release numerous cytokines, most importantly IL-7, which help in the maturation process. Further ...Show more


The chief function of the immune system is to protect the body from infections by invading pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria and fungi (Levinson, 2004). It has a huge range of cells and chemical substances at hand to identify and destroy an infinite number of foreign intruders (Dowshen, 2007).It differentiates foreign molecules from local ones and starts a suitable reaction, comprising of a range of cells, to counteract its harmful effects and bring the state of the body back to normal…
Author : hmertz
T cellB cell collaboration in the immune response to infection
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"T cellB cell collaboration in the immune response to infection"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Protective immune response against Toxoplasma gondii elicited by recombinant DNA vaccines
The development of effective DNA vaccines against T. gondii can help mitigate and control the spread of toxoplasmosis, a move that is critical to both human health and the farming industry. Immunization with DNA vaccines can stimulate humoral and cell-mediated immune response, all of which are significant in conferring immunity to Toxoplasma gondii (Dubey 2008, p.467).
11 pages (2750 words) Essay
Pathogencity and Immuneology Host resistence and the immune response
It is an anaerobe which is catalase positive and can be identified easily using Baird Parker Aggar in the laboratory. It can be found in skin and lines the mucous membranes in the human beings. The bacterium normally lives in the human body and does not cause any pathology in its ecological niche until the immunity of the person is compromised.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Describe five key features of the immune response against a bacterial infection
The protection to human body is provided by sweat, saliva and tears from eyes, among other agents. Although these defenses may be passive, yet they are quite affective in combating infection, while being called as ‘non-specific’ defenses. When the body is not able to ward-of the infections at level one, the second level defense mechanism becomes active.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
The Innate Immune Response
The antigens are generally in the form of proteins. Once the immune system comes across such substances, it also creates immunological memories, which help in preparing it for future attacks of this nature, and the system prepares itself for nullifying such attacks.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Discuss the signals that shape the characteristics of the memory CD8+ T-cell response and discuss how manipulation of these signals has the potential to reshape CD8+ T-cell memory and improve the efficacy of vaccination
Each T or B cell is specific for a particular antigen. Most of the T cells in the body belong to one of two subsets. The presence of one or the other of two
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Pathogencity and Immuneology; Host resistence and the immune response
presented above than other diseases.) Therefore, another perspective on this question is as follows: "If you were exposed to a disease, which of the above characteristics would be of greater concern to you as an individual." People living in communities can face several
2 pages (500 words) Essay
One of the most prominent values is that through collaborative group work individuals are able to receive a variety of perspectives that challenge and strengthen one’s own understanding. Collaboration in the learning context also prepares students for
1 pages (250 words) Essay
This is fundamentally the purpose of group work. Group work is preferred over individual work because the strengths are enhanced in the group while the weaknesses are overcome. While collaboration takes on a variety of
1 pages (250 words) Essay
These symptoms present as the symptoms of a disease which may have to be managed through antibiotics and other medications.
10 pages (2500 words) Essay
hese compounds are known to originate mainly from plasma, mast cells, the lining of the blood cells which is gladdened with endothelial cells, damaged cell tissues platelets and white blood cells. During inflammation, one of the chemicals that are released is histamine. The
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Essay on topic T cellB cell collaboration in the immune response to infection for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
Join us:
Contact Us