The Perfect Failure

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As an example of governmental failure, the Bay of Pigs Operation stands out as almost perfect. The planning was flawed from top to bottom and the implementation seriously incompetent. It was a failed policy, a failed operation, and had unrealistic expectations as its motives.


The plans for the invasion were begun under President Eisenhower and continued under President Kennedy. It was hoped that exiled Cubans could form a government outside Cuba to replace Castro after a successful invasion. This is where some of the initial failings took place. The exiled Cubans were incapable of establishing a government and had no clear leadership. Ike was animate about the formation of the government and insisted that the plan could not go forward without a leadership in place.2 Yet, according to Richard Bissell who was directing the CIA operation, there never was any cooperation among the Cubans who Bissell called "hot tempered and hardheaded" and incapable of forming a government.3 By the time of the invasion there was not sufficient political unity to manage and direct the overthrow of Castro.4
One of the key ingredients for a successful invasion was to be the element of surprise. However, training a force of 1500 exiled Cubans in Guatemala was difficult to keep secret. ...
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