The median age for males is 25.7 and for females 26.6, giving a total median age population of 26.1. (Country Reports 2006) The sex ratio (m/f) at birth is 1.05, at 15-64 is 1.0, and at 65 and over is 0.78.
With 21 births and 6 deaths per 1,000 people, and 36 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, Indonesia has an annual growth rate of 1.4%. Life expectancy at birth is currently 69.6 years. The crude birth rate per 1000 people is 22.55 as per the 1998 census. (World Health Organization) The total fertility rate (per woman) is 2.4. The primary reasons for the decline in fertility rate in Indonesia are an increased use in contraception, which in turn is due to economic development, an increase in the education rate, and greater work force participation for women. (Shafiqul-Islam et. al 1995) Adult male and female literacy rates are at 93.4% and 85.5% respectively (WHO)
The maternal mortality ratio, the infant mortality rate, and the under 5 mortality rate are all declining, due to several factors including increased immunization coverage, economic growth (particularly in rural areas), improvement in health facilities, and greater community awareness and participation. Constraints to reduction in mortality include increasing urbanization and poverty in remote island locations. (WHO)
Ethnicity of Indonesia is Javanese 45%, Sudanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%. Religious identity is Islam 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1%. (Country Reports: Indonesia)
Indonesia has become a global source of contract migrant workers, who secure jobs in another country for a contracted period. The push factor is the demand for unskilled labor in Australia and Thailand, for example. The scarcity of skilled workers in Indonesia is a major pull factor for immigration into the country. (UN)
Figure 3 - Religious Affiliation
Average daily protein intake is 65.74 as per the 1999 census. The people of Indonesia consume an average of around 2,800 calories per day. (FAO) Indonesia has faced serious problems with malnutrition due to inadequate production and availability of certain foods. Rice is the staple of the majority of Indonesians, due to availability and expense of meat protein. (FAO) Insufficient awareness of nutritional needs and poor eating habits are among other reasons for malnutrition. Other nutritional issues such as anemia, iodine deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency are also prevalent. (WHO)
Forestry is a significant employer in Indonesia, supplying around 3.7 million jobs. An estimated 51-57% of the land area of the country is covered in forest land, equating to 98-109 million hectares. 34% is designated for protection and national parks. Secondary forest products such as plywood, sawn timber, rattan, and paper are among the most important non-oil exports of the country. Switching to sustainable forest resources is crucial because the population of Indonesia is increasing relatively rapidly. The government plans to decrease reliance on natural forest areas for such products, and increase reliance on plantations, with the goal of having