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With an estimated population of 238,000,000 Indonesia is the fifth most highly-populated country in the world. According to a 2004 analysis, population per square kilometer is around 124. (Country Reports 2006).
29.4% of the population is aged 0-14 years (35.6 million males, 34.4 million females), and 5.1% of the population is aged 65 years and over (5.3 million males, 6.8 million females.


The median age for males is 25.7 and for females 26.6, giving a total median age population of 26.1. (Country Reports 2006) The sex ratio (m/f) at birth is 1.05, at 15-64 is 1.0, and at 65 and over is 0.78.
With 21 births and 6 deaths per 1,000 people, and 36 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, Indonesia has an annual growth rate of 1.4%. Life expectancy at birth is currently 69.6 years. The crude birth rate per 1000 people is 22.55 as per the 1998 census. (World Health Organization) The total fertility rate (per woman) is 2.4. The primary reasons for the decline in fertility rate in Indonesia are an increased use in contraception, which in turn is due to economic development, an increase in the education rate, and greater work force participation for women. (Shafiqul-Islam et. al 1995) Adult male and female literacy rates are at 93.4% and 85.5% respectively (WHO)
The maternal mortality ratio, the infant mortality rate, and the under 5 mortality rate are all declining, due to several factors including increased immunization coverage, economic growth (particularly in rural areas), improvement in health facilities, and greater community awareness and participation. ...
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