Human resource management. Training and development

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One major area of personnel work of particular relevance to the effective use of human resources is training and development. Training has a major influence on the success of an organisation. In order to sustain economic and effective performance it is important to optimise the contribution of employees to the aims and goals of the organisation.


It increases the level of individual and organisational competence and helps to reconcile the gap between what should happen, and desired targets and standards of performance; and what is happening and actual levels of work performance. According to Armstrong (2001): "training needs analysis is partly concerned with defining the gap between what is happanng and what should happen. However, it is necessary to avoid falling into the trap of adopting the "deficiency model" approach, which implies that training is only about putting things rights that have gone wrong" (Armstrong, 2001, p. 551-552).
Training needs assessment is necessary to ensure an adequate supply of staff who are technically and socially competent, and capable of career advancement into specialist departments or management positions. There is, therefore, a continual need for the process of staff development, and training fulfils an important part of this process. Training should be viewed, therefore, as an integral part of the process of total quality management.
Armstrong divides training needs assessment into three levels: corporate, group and individual level (Armstrong, 2001). A large number of organisations make some use of separate training needs analysis, although this is usually a periodic rather than a regular activity. ...
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