StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Philosophy of Science - Essay Example

Not dowloaded yet

Extract of sample
Philosophy of Science

This paper discusses the problem of induction and how it impacts current knowledge and approach to science. This discussion revolves primarily around works of David Hume and Karl Popper due to the former theorising on induction more than any other philosopher and the latter revealing inapplicability of induction for science and scientific method.
Alan Musgrave (2004) in his critique of induction problem introduces Hume's argument as the basis for understanding the dilemma. Musgrave distinguishes Hume's three points, namely: (1) we reason, and must reason, inductively; (2) inductive reasoning is logically invalid and (3) to reason in a logically invalid way is irrational. Thus, the problem of induction is a problem confronted by scientists and philosophers concerned with science, but more specifically it is a problem for scientific method. Furthermore, it is a problem for the practice of science, for scientific endeavor, and it is a problem for the procedures of science. From the critical perspective, as science is or ought to be, it faces and must solve the problem of induction.
David Hume created a philosophical system to explain his understanding of human nature. He provided a solid non-metaphysical explanation of the nature of human thought to use as a foundation to his philosophy. As an empiricist, Hume believed our knowledge is of the phenomenal world and is gained through experience. The following passage addresses not only his opinion regarding metaphysics, but his basic belief regarding the significance of ideas and impressions:
All ideas, especially abstract ones, are naturally faint and obscure: the mind has but a slender hold of them: they are apt to be confounded with other resembling ideas; and when we have often employed any term, though without a distinct meaning, we are apt to imagine it as a determinate idea annexed to it. On the contrary, all impressions, that is, all sensations, either outward or inward, are strong and vivid; the limits between them are more exactly determined: nor is it easy to fall into any error or mistake with regard to them (Hume, 1985, p.49).
Hume built a unique system of knowledge. Creating complex ideas by comparing or combining simple ideas is the province of understanding, which includes imagination as well as the intellect. Everything we believe comes from experience, either as a simple idea derived from direct experience or as a complex of related ideas abstracted from experience. Human understanding comes from applying the intellect and imagination to ideas in order to form beliefs about the phenomenal world. Hume claimed there are only three types of connection between ideas: resemblance, contiguity in time and space, and cause and effect (Hume, 1999, p.101). Therefore, beliefs are gained by applying the intellect and imagination to ideas to abstract what they have in common, including location ...Show more

Summary

If one is right claiming that our scientific principles are, at best, inductive generalisations that are derived from sets of particular scientific judgments, then those scientific principles, at best, cannot be known to be universal and at worst, are entirely without merit…
Author : ocie68
Philosophy of Science essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Philosophy of Science"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Related Essays

Philosophy of Science - Does Creationism qualify as science
This view gains ground for it also supports the theory of evolution proposed by science of evolutionary biology. However, the approach of ‘Creation Science’ which holds a trend to the Christian religion is creating controversial viewpoints about the history of the earth’s and universe’s existence.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Philosophy of Science Essay
Hempel, however, finds this use of induction ridiculous and untenable in a scientific situation. One of the major problems is that using induction to form the basis of a scientific experiment inherently involves the assumptions that it is supposed to remove, and is thus completely self defeating.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Philosophy of Science Essay
While discussing the philosophy of science two major names come before our vision. First is Kuhn and another is Popper. Thomas Kuhn was an American philosopher of science who forged a quite open, fundamental and democratic approach to science. He was a scholar and rebelled against the scientific establishment.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Philosophy of science
Due to such significance of inductive suppositions, a huge number of experts, philosophers, and scientists1 have put efforts to evaluate and analyze the role of inductive inferences in scientific achievements of the humans. In specific,
10 pages (2500 words) Essay
Philosophy of Science
The study considers classic philosophy of sciences as represented in the views of Popper and Lakatos (1999) and how it applies to psychology. It also considers the basics of statistical inference, comparing the theoretical basis of orthodox as viewed in Neyman Pearson
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Philosophy of Science and Religion
One of the theologians who have out rightly denied the existence of God is Charles Darwin. His theology of natural selection has raised many eyebrows in awe and in despising. Moreover many theologians have ignored and contemplated positively and negatively on his
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Philosophy of Science
This means that scientists end up changing their facts when experimental evidence going against them comes up (Feyerabend 57). Overall, no scientific theory survives
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Philosophy of Science
This means that scientists end up changing their facts when experimental evidence going against them comes up (Feyerabend 57). Overall, no scientific theory survives
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Philosophy of science
Kuhn considers paradigm as an important scientific tool that supports the continuation of a particular research. According to him, paradigm is a structure that contains the widely accepted views about phenomena. It has various roles in normal science. One of the roles of paradigm is the ability to determine what a researcher should study or research (Kuhn 43).
3 pages (750 words) Essay
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
According to the definition, stress can be said to exist if it can be quantified. It does not have any qualitative aspects. Those who enroll to the theory of thought put emphasize on using empirical research to define
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Get a custom paper written
by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Rate this paper:
Thank you! Your comment has been sent and will be posted after moderation