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Ludwig von Bertalanffy Systems Theory - Essay Example

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Ludwig von Bertalanffy Systems Theory

"It is frequently noticed that general aspects, view points as well as isomorphic laws exists in different fields, irrespective of the nature of entities involved. Thus, there appears to exist a general system law.
Conventional physics define itself only as a closed system, i.e. systems which exist as isolated from their environment. But, systems by their nature and definition are not closed one, but an open one. Every living being is an open system and it maintains its life in a continuous inflow and outflow, a building up and breaking down. Only in recent years, to include open system into physics has been considered. Open system theory was advocated by this theory. Modern theory of communication is another development of the system theory. The main idea behind communication theory is information and in many cases the flow of information can be elicited by the reaction. Another way of measuring information is in terms of decisions. The second concept of theory of communication is that of feedback.
Diffusion is the process which communicates innovation to members of social system through certain channels. Otherwise, diffusion of innovation studies how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology are spread through cultures. Everett M. Rogers theorized in his book, Diffusion of Innovation, 1962 that innovations would spread through society in an S curve. Roger was of opinion that people's attitude towards a new technology, idea, product, or practice will be accepted by society members.
"Given that decisions are not authoritative or collective, each member of the social system faces his/her own innovation-decision that follows a 5-step process - Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision, Implementation and Confirmation." (Orr G., 18 Mar 2003)
The innovation-decision theory is based on a cost-benefit analysis. An individual's innovation-decision is largely depended on their personal characteristics. Diffusion scholars divided system member innovativeness into five divisions based on how early they adopt new changes than other members. They are: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. The innovators are easily excited by the possible benefits and their opinion regarding new idea helps the potential adopters. Here, the well informed leader communicates their acceptance or non acceptance based on their experiences to the rest of the society members. Mass media seems to be a powerful tool to have a direct and immediate effect on the mass audience. But, according to diffusion theory, since the opinion leaders are the direct encouraging agents of an innovation, a powerful way for changing the agents to affect the diffusion of an innovation is to affect ...Show more

Summary

Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy was an Austrian-born biologist and one of the founders of general systems theory. Von Bertalanffy was a professor at various universities in Vienna, London, Ottawa, and Southern California etc. There exists isomorphism between different fields…
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Ludwig von Bertalanffy Systems Theory essay example
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