In reality, the productive functions and the managerial functions are closely and intricately interwoven, with the conscious or unconscious aim of coordinating human effort and material resources toward the achievement of organizational objectives. In contrast to managers, the main quality of a leader is to guide employees, predict and eliminate possible dangers, create a strategic vision of company's growth and development. Leaders should be able to access critically the situation and rely on employee strengths, be inspirational and has a good technical competence (Northouse 2006).
In contrast to leaders, managers plan organizational processes according to objectives and the policies initiated by leaders. They develop programs, schedules, procedures, and methods for achieving them. Thus, planning is essentially decision making since it involves choosing among alternatives, and it also encompasses innovation. Every leader creates unique leadership style based on his personal characteristics, traditions and traits. In contrast, managers do not have a unique style of management but follow standardized rules and procedures determined by hierarchical relations and organizational structure. Their task is to measure and correct activities of subordinates to assure the accomplishment of plans. ...Show more