The twilight hours were the hours before dawn and after sunset. After a while, the Egyptians and other ancient societies realized that the sun rose and set in different places in the summer and winter. In fact, the sun never took the same course on any one day throughout the year and also if the sky is overcast throughout the whole day and night this method would not work. (Barnett, 1998)
The major fault with sundials and shadow clocks is obvious so, around 1400 B.C. water clocks were invented named clepsydra. A water clock was made of two containers of water, one higher than the other. Water traveled from the higher container to the lower container through a tube connecting the containers. The containers had marks showing the water level, and the marks told the time.
Water clocks worked better than sundials because they told the time at night as well as during the day. But it also had its own limitations like Water would flow more slowly or quickly when the temperature changed.
The first mechanical clocks appeared in Europe, supposedly because of inspiration by the stories that came from China about mechanical clocks. The first mechanical clocks were rather simple and just sounded a bell every hour. ...