In my opinion there are three vital non-verbal categories which if applied properly will fully complete all the functions of the non-verbal communication and will not hinder the verbal one - eye contact, paralanguage and adornment. Modern business culture values eye contact, because it maintains the balance of the interpersonal relation between the seniors and the workers. Looking away might be read as avoiding the importance of the message conveyed. Thus, keeping eye contact with the employees when talking is of crucial importance. Scheflen (1972) explains that paralanguage involves non-lexical vocal communication. Paralanguage uses the broadest emotional nuances, consequently, if applied properly can replace excessive gestures or facial expressions. This category includes inflection, tone, pitch (high, low), pauses (hesitant, organized, meaningful), pacing (rapid, measured, slow) (Scheflen 1972). Paralanguage is a powerful tool, because it plays with associations and on unconscious level. Knapp and Hall (2002) note that adornment - clothes, make-up, accessories are also important communication tools, which besides appearance transmit emotional and psychological signs. Managers need to be extra careful when choosing adornments, because they play a powerfully suggestive action. Moreover, the room where the meetings are held has the capacity to affect the interaction. The amount of light, the color of the walls, the seat arrangement, the temperature and smells have to the correctly applied by the manager who is trying to make his point and his ideas to be understood and followed.
2. Discuss in detail the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective listening.
The most common mistake made in management is not listening. Active listening is the other term used to identify undivided attention and empathic attitude. Rock (2007) outlines four basic rules that active listening involves:
Seek to understand before you seek to be understood;
Be non judgmental;
Give your undivided attention to the speaker;
Use silence effectively.
All these require a high emotional intelligence, because they operate on mental, emotional and subconscious levels. When we try to understand rather than to be understood, this strains our listening abilities. Furthermore, through collecting the information while listening takes place, we process the details first we our intelligence and then exchange it emotionally to see what we have understood. Empathic listening proves that emotional intelligence is necessary to accomplish this. An example of being non judgmental is when we are acquainting with a new person. We avoid addressing arguable issues, until we learn the disposition or judgment criteria of the individual about the problem. This empathic behavior is excellent indicator for the emotional intelligence involved is active listening and communication techniques. The undivided attention is also dependent on the emotional intelligence, because the listener intentionally directs his senses towards the speaker. The listener can also consciously send messages to the speaker to demonstrate that he is actively listening through body language, applauses or asking questions. The final concept for