He named the stages according to the possible outcomes. Stages 5 to 8 explain the transition from childhood through death. During adolescence as explained in stage 5, children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future. During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome of their explorations. In young adulthood, people face the challenge of developing intimate relationships with others. Based on stage 6, if they do not succeed, they may become isolated and lonely. In stage 7, during young adulthood, people face the challenge of developing intimate relationships with others. If they do not succeed, they may become isolated and lonely. In old age, explained in stage 8, people examine their lives. They may either have a sense of contentment or be disappointed about their lives and fearful of the future. Leaders therefore should know how to provide the proper recognition to their subordinates to motivate them and it should be dynamic since needs differ with age.
Jean Piaget's Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development. Jean Piaget conducted a program of naturalistic research that has profoundly affected our understanding of child development. He called his general theoretical framework genetic epistemology because he was primarily interested in how knowledge developed in human organisms. The concept of cognitive structure is central to his theory (Piaget, 1985). Cognitive structures are patterns of physical or mental action that underlie specific acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of child development. The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. He believes that deductive logic becomes important during the formal operational stage. Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a specific outcome. According to him, while children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, the ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal operational stage. Instead of relying solely on previous experiences, children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. During the formal operational stage, he asserts that the ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way emerges. It is therefore a guide for leaders that problem solving skills should be developed because it yields more efficient subordinates.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. Lawrence Kohlberg focused on moral development and has proposed a stage theory of moral thinking which goes well beyond Piaget's initial formulations (Kohlberg, 1971). In stage 1, the child assumes that powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules which he or she must unquestioningly obey. In stage 2 children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints. Since everything is relative, each person is free to pursue his or her individual interests. Within stage 3, children see morality as more than simple deals. They believe that people should live up to the expectations of the family and community and behave in good ways. In stage 4 the emphasis is on obeying laws, respecting
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Erikson's Theories of Cognitive Development. Theories on development show the series of age-related changes that happen over the entire course of an individual's life which is described through the use of stages. The stage theories formulated by Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg share three assumptions (Erikson, 1950; Piaget, 1985; Kohlberg, 1971): 1…
It is therefore, the process that involves perception, thought, and understanding of the world that surrounds an individual. Cognitive development has been studied in various ways historically. The oldest is referred to as the Intelligence Quotient that was used widely by Stanford Binet.
After a brief introduction to the basic premises of Cognitive Development Theory, this paper will compare and contrast the approaches of Piaget and Vygotsky to intelligence and its developmental stages. Classroom applications will be considered. Not all cognitive development theories are alike, but they do share some basic premises.
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Both theories are of great importance to both childcare and pedagogical ideas.
Vygotsky thus suggests that "consciousness" is in fact the end product of socialization, rather than, as Freud et al. suggested, that social interactions depend upon the level of consciousness that has been achieved.
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Jean Piaget was one of the most influential researchers in the field of developmental psychology.
The two schools of thought to be addresses in this essay are the cognitive constructivist branch espoused by Jean Piaget and the social constructionist branch espoused by Lev Vygotsky. this essay shall examine the biological view of cognitive development according to Piaget and the broader social notion of cognitive development as explained by Vygotsky.
Several theories have been articulated on cognitive development, and researches have been made on different aspects of development in children; three of which have most significant influence on the kindergarten teaching
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Teachers have, therefore, adopted two of the most popular theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, into their teaching activities. Through the practices and guidelines provided by these theories, they are better placed to help their students achieve more. Development refers to any process of change and stability that takes place throughout the period of human life.
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