Islam in the Modern World

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1. The Madina period marked a new political order and established laws and principles dominated in Islam till the modern period of time. This period is connected with the life of Muhammad and his teaching. The gradual replacement of existing customs that did not meet Islamic standards is well illustrated by the Quranic prohibitions.


Traditional law remained in force. The Medina period established a new order and codified different religious traditions and separate laws. The Quran was revealed to Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years in order to meet the needs of the Islamic society in Mecca and then in Medina. It gradually provided an Islamic ideology for the community and, in the process, modified or supplemented existing customs not meeting Islamic standards. Quranic values were concretized and interpreted by the second material source of law, the Sunnah of the Prophet (Murata and Chittick 12).
2. Quran is the main religious text in Islam. Since the Quran is not a law book, i.e., not a collection of prescriptions providing a legal system, and because the Prophet was no longer alive to resolve problems, the early Caliphs, and later, during the Umayyad period (661-750), the judges (qadis) shouldered the responsibility of rendering legal decisions. The Muslim concern not simply to know the divine will but also to execute it, inspired the early Muslim community's expansion and conquest of Arabia, the Eastern Byzantine Empire in Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, the Persian (Sasanid) Empire in Iran and Iraq, and Egypt. ...
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