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Yellow fever is a viral hemorrhagic disease that is mosquito borne. The virus belongs to the family of flavi virus and is a positive sense single stranded RNA virus which is about 50-60 nm in diameter.


Interaction of virulence factor proteins with cellular receptors results in the dentritic cells endocytose the virions and subsequently disseminating them. Host invasion follows the infection of the Kupffer cells in liver followed by kidneys, lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow. The infection manifests itself as renal failure and liver involvement (eMedicine).

Yellow fever has been a cause of life threatening epidemics throughout the last few hundreds of years of human civilization. It is believed to have originated in Africa and transported to the western hemisphere through the slave trade with the first reported outbreak being in Yucatan in 1648 (Carter). The ensuing years reported a number of outbreaks in the Americas and Europe (Strode et al). The disease remained an enigma though Cuban Carlos Finlay suggested the mosquito Culex cubensis which is now called Aedes aegypti to be responsible for the spread of the disease (Bryan 275-292). His multiple attempts however could not prove the theory and it was not until the end of the 19th century that the mystery surrounding the enigmatic disease was unlocked by Surgeon Walter Reed of the United States Army. The work done by Reed and his colleagues found that the mosquito Aedes aegypti was critical in the dissemination of the disease and a filterable agent found in the patients' blood was the cause of the disease (Reed, Carroll, and Agramonte 431-440). ...
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