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Introduction: Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that deals with the structure and functioning of chromosomes. In this branch of chromosome science, chromosome structure is studied and various predictions are also made for future genetic disorders. Trisomy and monosomy for the whole chromosome were the first cytogenetic mechanism that leads to an abnormal phenotype was identified.
Other Cytogenetic techniques include Fluorescent in-situ hybridization, Centromere or C-banding, replication banding, Sub-microscopic telomere analysis, distamycin staining and Comparative Genomic Hybridization (1). Abnormalities in chromosomes can also be identified by non-cytogenetic methods, like that of Microarray analysis and Molecular analysis of Telomeric sequences (1). Human numerical abnormalities are now measured by the advent of cytogenetics, which include Downs Syndrome, Turners syndrome and Klinefelters syndrome. The advance of molecular cytogenetics started in 1980s with the advent of Fluorescent in-situ hybridization. Later than FISH, technique of chromosome microdissection came in picture in which micromanipulation and examination of chromosome was carried out. This method lead to study in detail the aberration in chromosomal structure that could be isolated cloned and thereby studied in even finer detail. This method is also been put to medical use like in diagnosis of cancer and in hematological malignancies where it is used to determine the chromosomal translocations in the malignant cells, thus making the diagnosis easier and thereby the treatment becomes more specific. It is also used in the identification of the abnormality in myeloid leukemia (2). ...
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