Although it may appear that conformity to such behaviours are results of higher order reasoning or references to internalised norms and values, there were no obvious influences of such factors. With time, these behaviours were expressed when warranted. The authority and punishment orientation was the most frequently cited reason for the instances of prosocial behaviour in this research (Chadha and Misra, 2006).
Thus at least this study indicates that behaviours can be modified through authority orientation. By authority figure, this study indicates the influence of teachers or social workers. The authors state that "Though no child stated as much, but it could well be that this made these children very conscious of not doing anything that could annoy the staff." Authority orientation, demands of authorities, and fear of punishment were common factors in children's conformity and compliance to certain behaviour.
2. Cognitive approach has been used in the treatment of depression. Choose an alternative therapeutic approach to the treatment of depression and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach you have selected as opposed to Cognitive Therapy.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for mood disorders, specifi...
This uses a combination of techniques involving behavioural and cognitive components to help the individual cope with the symptoms of depression in order to enable him to find better ways to encounter life situations. In this way, it attempts to alter the patterns of thinking, responses, and beliefs. This would also alter the course of depression since these responses are presumed to underlie the maintenance of depression (Moore and Garland, 2003). Depression classically comprises of affective, cognitive, behavioral, and somatic elements. In parallel with the emphasis on compensatory strategies in cognitive accounts, recent behavioral conceptualizations of depression have highlighted the importance of avoidant behaviors in depression, particularly within the behavioral activation (BA) approach. BA was initially documented to be developed as part of a component analysis of the active components of CBT, which only reflected a behavioural component of CBT. Subsequently, BA was found to be equally effective as BA plus thought challenging. Central to the BA conceptualization of depression is the concept of secondary avoidant behaviours in response to the symptoms of depression produced by negative events. BA proposes that unhelpful secondary coping responses lead to the maintenance of depression. Typically, unhelpful secondary coping responses involve attempts to escape from an aversive environment or to avoid aversive situations or emotional states leading to avoidant behaviour. While this is compensatory and coping strategy leading to being passive, withdrawal, rumination, complaining, or avoiding new activities. Because these behaviors reduce exposure to aversive situations they are negatively reinforced