It is usual for European explorers to use casually terms like "wilderness" and "unknown" to describe homelands of native people. In fact, these regions were the real milieu of Native American homes with their adjoining gardens and hunting lands. The journey of the Europeans and their entourage, bearing the massive inventory of the expedition could not have completed the mission without the co-operation and support of the natives. It is highly doubtful whether they would have survived in the rugged and hostile terrain without heavily relaying on the expertise of the natives for whom it was their home. The wealth of vital topographic knowledge about rivers, streams, hills, and passages might have been invaluable logistic support on their itinerary. Though they co-operated both Europeans and the natives may not have understood the full implications of the unfolding drama.
There are plethoras of motives that goad explorers to brave the tumultuous waves of perilous oceans, to confront the dusty heat waves of the desert and to scale the precipitous cliffs. Nevertheless, social historians have narrowed down the motives of the men to the inordinate craving for gold, God and glory. Those who went for the mundane lure of wealth may not have much reflected on the experience of their contact with the alien people. However, the missionaries who went out to save souls might have been shocked at the sight of natives whose ways were totally unacceptable. They dumped the natives as heathens:
The attitudes of BFM missionaries toward American Indian manifestations of heathenism were thus unremittingly ethnocentric. These Presbyterians could see nothing worth preserving in the rich and varied Indian cultures they entered (Coleman 80).
Many Europeans failed to grasp the close link between health, environmental concerns and cosmology. As Kupperman observed such concept was also prevalent in England and France. (Kupperman 2000). It is somewhat surprising as medical theories in many European societies then, also took into consideration the relation between morality and well being and sometimes attributed illness to witchcraft
While the attitude of the early missionaries were one of disgust at the sight of the savage practices of the natives, early diplomat-explorer could experience a sense of kinship with the savage chiefs. George Percy speaks of his first sight of a Powhatan werowance in 1607 as follows:
His body was painted all with Crimson, with a chaine of Beads about his necke, his face painted blew, besprinkled with silver Ore as wee thought, his eares all behung with fine Copper or Gold, he entertained us in so modest a proud fashion, as though he had beene a Prince of Civil government, holding his countenance without laughter or any such ill behavior. (Bragdon 38)
Kupperman (Kupperman 2000,63) has pointed out, Percy, himself a nobleman understood the nobility of the native but was unwilling to give much importance to his political stature.
The range of the Indians was mainly in their land and their interaction with other cultures was minimal. The Europeans on the other hand with their spirit of expansion and lure for gold and
When history is composed by the victor it is impossible to read the other side of story through the eyes of the vanguished. So the truth of history is only partial. However , after the celebration of the victory when the minds are less euphoric it is possible to gauge the truth behind the stories that shaped the American dream over the years.The former chroniclers of explorations cinemetically focussed on what they saw through a single lense…
Why did the Native Americans fail to unify against the Europeans during the 1800’s?
History reveals that at the time of the European arrival there were as many as 15 million Native Americans present in the Americas1. These men and women had been present on the land for many thousands of years before the first arrival of the new race, with theories suggesting that they arrived in the land from travelling across a land bridge which crossed the Bering Sound during the Ice Age.
The researcher states that the health of Native Americans deteriorated because of Europeans migrations and their influence on the natives’ living style and diet. Moreover, the biomolecular archeology techniques highlight that the disease agents originated from the Old World, evolving through subsequent generations and later transmitted to animals.
Native Americans settled in the American land many years before the arrival and the subsequent settlement of the Europeans. However, despite being the original or rather the real inhabitants of America, they encountered a series of atrocities upon the arrival of the Europeans.
The new gained freedom provided an opportunity for the African natives to develop and form a community within the eastern shores. With their continual growth, the black Americans amassed wealth and influence before the native whites and Indians. The behaviours, practises and social life of the African and Native Americans shaped the colonial America in several aspects.
The basic need to outlive and outlast anybody and everybody is evident in every one of us regardless of where we came from.
Takaki, in his attempt to rationalize differences, has in fact highlighted likenesses in terms of gender, race, culture and religious practices and how one societal group ( Native Americans, Chicanos, Chinese, etc.) different physically and in other aspects as well, could be influenced in their behavior by the culture they are accustomed growing up into (social roles) that they bring these problems, tensions, prejudice, morale etc., biased or unbiased into their relationships affecting other people.
It is evidently clear from the discussion that Clark tries to establish trade with the Indians, promising them a fair price for their furs and other goods. He wants the Indians to understand that other white men would be coming from the Great Chief in the future and that they should treat them well if they want to please the Great Chief.
The study leads to the conclusion that throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, some of the Native Americans were acculturated into the Europeans’ way of life abandoning their customs, traditions, native language, among others. They also lost their group and social ties and identities as well as other cultural elements.
The conclusion states that literature can be described as an educative and unifying factor in the United States of America. This is because it promotes the essence of multiculturalism in the US which resulted from globalization that was inspired by the civil wars. Literature also portrays the changing of the Native American culture through the change in the art used in writing.