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Motivational Theories - Essay Example

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Motivational Theories

The X and Y theory The theory X and theory Y formulated by Douglas Mc Gregor in the year 1960 positions previous negative perceptions about employees (Theory X) against a positive outlook towards employees and mindset of individuals (Theory Y) eg: Theory X- People inherently dislike work. Theory Y - People view work as being as natural as play and rest.
Motivator- Hygiene factors theory : The hygiene factors theory by Frederick Herzberg in the year 1966 is another path breaking concept which clearly listed the factors of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Most accurately explained as Motivator factors that increase job satisfaction and Hygiene factors whose absence can create job dissatisfaction. The essence of the theory is that hygiene factors are the essentials of any employee or an individual at work they are - Security, Salary, Supervision, Company policy, Working conditions and Peer relationship. On the other hand, motivator factors are - work itself, Responsibility, recognition, achievement, advancement and growth. However, the first two theories give a general insight about an individual's needs and perceptions to understand a human's psychology about work was the theory of Frederick Herzberg that clearly lists the requisites of any given job for an individual.
The three needs theory -...
The highlight of the theory is direct relation it draws to the relevance to the word "Motivation' or factors that motivate. In this case factors that motivate individuals to perform and succeed. The needs theory includes all factors that come from within an individual. Eg: Competitiveness, influence that one exerts on another, need for achievement, acceptance and friendship.

Goal Setting theory and Equity theory: The goal setting theory by the Stacey Adams in the year 1965 states that specific goals set by any organization for an individual increases performance in the of sales the goal is monthly target of sale on products to be achieved. The theory further goes on to explain that acceptance of a difficult goal only results in higher performance, even when compared to a goal that is easily achievable. The equity theory is nothing but the simple equation that any individual draws between the efforts and rewards an individual is constantly trying to match both sides by reducing efforts or increasing the same depending on the rewards and recognition expected. Eg: If a sales representative sees the reward or recognition is receives after he meets the required monthly target is unequal to his effort or sincerity he is bound to under perform the following month.

Expectancy Theory: This theory by Victor Vroom in the year 1964 aims to substantiate the motivation theory more accurately for any sales unit. Victor Vroom explains the theory in three simple questions:

1. How hard will I have to work - Effort
2. What is the reward - Reward
3. How attractive is the reward - Attractiveness of reward.

Thus the above mentioned theories in one way of or the other help in understanding the various factors of ...Show more


Introduction: The literature review below summarizes various motivational Theories aspects of personal selling, Individual and organizational factors that affect motivation of sales representatives and their market intelligence. Motivational theories are many and all of them relate to the various needs of a human in the process of achieving satisfaction in any given task.
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