Virtually all systems (for example, the heart and blood vessels, the immune system, the lungs, the digestive sys tem, the sensory organs, and brain) are modified to meet the perceived danger" (Sanberg 982)
Wright notices that stress "is a medical term for a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological, which can cause a physiological response called the general adaptation syndrome". (Wright 358)
Crowding is mentioned to be acute stress. Acute stress is immediate reaction of organism to danger or threat which is also known as "fight or flight response". This category also includes such psychological stresses as noise, isolation, hunger, infection and imaginary threat. All these kinds of stress, including crowding has psychological effect, because they act on the subconscious level and they are really dangerous for people's mentality. (Yao 859)
Crowding is a potential source of psychological stress and one more area of interest. It is unpleasant feeling of people when there is a crowd (too many people) around them and it is unpleasant when there is too little available space.
But it doesn't mean that crowding refers to density ("an objective measure of the number of people per unit"). (Sandberg 983) In density situations there are people who fell crowded and there are people who don't. ...