Dot/cross diagrams for ethanoic acid and nitric acid.

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Nitric acid is stronger than Ethanoic acid because in nitric acid the oxygen is bonded to nitrogen which has higher oxidation state (+5). Hence, electrons remain attracted toward nitrogen. This attraction creates polarization between oxygen and hydrogen, thus making the oxygen more electronegative.


Whereas in the case of ethanoic acid, carbon has less oxidation state (+3) and thus, resulting a weak polarization between oxygen and hydrogen. This makes ethanoic acid weak acid compared to nitric acid.
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