New Forms of Employment

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Uncommon work schedule such as part-time work and short-term employment nowadays became an essential topic in writing and study on work and employment. Nonstandard work relations (Gellerman 1990, Fine & Cronshaw 1999, Gratton et al 1999, Matejko 1996) have also been discussed as alternative work arrangements (Callanan & Greenhaus 1999), market-mediated arrangements (Gardner 1997), nontraditional employment relations (Larson & Ong 1995), flexible employment arrangements (Jackson & Schuler1995, Gooderham 1999), flexible working practices (Hays & Kearney 2001), atypical employment (Fine & Cronshaw 1999, Brown et al.


These phrases have in common their definition of employment relations that differ from typical work arrangements in which it was normally implied that work was implemented full-time, would last for an indefinite period, and was fulfilled at the employer's office strictly according to the employer's instruction. Typical work arrangements were the model in a lot of industrial states for much of the twentieth century and were the foundation of the structure within which employment law, bargaining, and security systems functioned.
Reforms beginning at the end of twentieth century created the situation that led countries, companies, and employees to look for more flexibility in employment. As a result, the usual employment relationship started changing (Galbraith, 2004, p. 42; Houseman & Osawa, 1995, p. 10). Worldwide economic reforms increased competition and indecision among companies and made them to push for larger earnings and to be more adaptable in setting relations with their workers and responding to customers. ...
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