These phrases have in common their definition of employment relations that differ from typical work arrangements in which it was normally implied that work was implemented full-time, would last for an indefinite period, and was fulfilled at the employer's office strictly according to the employer's instruction. Typical work arrangements were the model in a lot of industrial states for much of the twentieth century and were the foundation of the structure within which employment law, bargaining, and security systems functioned.
Reforms beginning at the end of twentieth century created the situation that led countries, companies, and employees to look for more flexibility in employment. As a result, the usual employment relationship started changing (Galbraith, 2004, p. 42; Houseman & Osawa, 1995, p. 10). Worldwide economic reforms increased competition and indecision among companies and made them to push for larger earnings and to be more adaptable in setting relations with their workers and responding to customers. ...Show more