Critically discuss the strengths and weaknesses of New Public Management in the UK and another country, illustrating your answer with examples from one public s

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The traditional model f public administration is based on the bureaucracy theory. It is characterized as "an administration under the formal control f the political leadership, based on a strictly hierarchical model f bureaucracy, staffed by permanent, neutral and anonymous officials, motivated only by the public interest, serving any governing party equally, and not contributing to policy but merely administrating those policies decided by the politicians." The traditional model f administration was an improvement compared to the earlier one, which was regarded as the replacement f personal administration with an impersonal system based on rules.


The characteristics f this bureaucratic state were set out most clearly by the German sociologist Max Weber in 1920, with strong echoes f earlier writings by the American Woodrow Wilson (Hughes, 1998):
Further refinement f the traditional model f public administration came through the application f private sector based ideas f 'scientific management', which introduced efficient operational methods based on standardization f tasks, 'one best way' f fitting workers to tasks, and systematic control f tasks, processes, and workers (Hughes, 1998,33-34). These principles were easily adapted to bureaucratic structures. A final addition to the traditional model was the application f the insights f social psychology, in a 'human relations' approach which is often contrasted with the scientific management approach, but in practice sought to achieve greater efficiency f performance too, though by paying attention to the need to motivate workers rather than merely control and direct them (Hughes, 1998, 35-6).
Unfortunately, the ideal bureaucr ...
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