Today, hotel and tourism industry is one of dynamic branches of hospitality and tourism economy. It is the growing industry in the UK and around the world. The development of hospitality and tourism industries is a present day need. High rates of its development, great volumes of currency receipts have an active influence on various sectors of economy that promotes formation of hotel and tourism industries.
The main objective of hospitality and tourism operators is to maintain the level of service quality and develop strategies to improve their services (Bardi, 2002).
Service quality is closely connected with Human Resource Management (HRM) and concepts and methods it employs. In literature there was a debate concerning the effectiveness of different approaches in hotel and tourism industries and their impact on service quality improvement. In general, the concept of resource-based strategic HRM is founded on the belief expressed by Hamel and Prahalad (1990) that competitive advantage is obtained if a firm can obtain and develop human resources which enable it to learn faster and apply its learning more effectively than its rivals. Resource-based strategy indicates, can develop strategic capability. The strategic goal will be to 'create firms which are more intelligent and flexible than their competitors' by hiring and developing more talented staff and by extending their skills base (DeFranco, Noriega, 1999).
A convincing rationale for resource-based strategy has been produced by Grant: "When the external environment is in a state of flux, the firm's own resources and capabilities may be a much more stable basis on which to define its identity. Hence, a definition of a business in terms of what it is capable of doing may offer a more durable basis for strategy than a definition based upon the needs which the business seeks to satisfy" (Grant, 1991).
So, it is possible to single out two basic approaches used in hospitality and tourism industries. The "best practice" approach is based on belief that there is a set of superior HRM practices which, if adopted, will lead to better organization performance. The "best fit" approach, which is based on the belief that there can be no universal prescriptions for HRM policies and practices (Rutherford, 2001).
Present day situation in hospitality and tourism industries is marked by two factor - specification, which is to do with the "design quality" of service, and conformity, which is to do with the 'process' quality which is achieved are of particular importance to customers. Each of the HRM approaches determines the quality levels provided by hospitality and tourism industries to its customers. These two factors however are themselves determined by other factors. Service concepts are based on understanding the unique environment in which hotels operate. Service concepts include improvement of communication, and the environment composed of all the individual services used for implementation of the group communication primitives. But, "best-practice" and "best fit" approaches solve these target aims using different methods and techniques.
The HRM of hospitality and tourism organizations based on "best practice" approach helps to ensure customers satisfaction and improve service quality uses a set of best HRM practices and that adopting them to superior organizational performance. It helps hospitality and tourism operators to achieve their goals through the people who are employed in the sphere and their training. That is why maximizing each employee's potential as an individual and as a team member will be a key to maximizing the profitability of each hotel. To improve operations, an ...
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