The perpetrators of bullying also suffer from negative effects, and they have been demonstrated to be having an increased risk of mental health disorders. These may be attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and various conduct disorders. It has been stated that effects of bullying carries into the adulthood in some form of other. One such example is that the childhood bullies are often severely punitive with their children, and these children may subsequently show higher predilection for being more aggressive to peers (Sourander et al, 2007, 397-404).
There is considerable body of literature on this topic, and several facts have been known that can be used to design proper interventions into this social problem of considerable magnitude. Consequently, a literature review would be worthwhile, which could present the existing body of knowledge in this area, through which gaps in knowledge could be identified to direct further research. An exhaustive literature review was undertaken with the key words, "bullying", "childhood bullying", "school bullying", "effects", "future behavior", "adulthood", and "adult behaviors." A combination of these key concepts was used to narrow down the search, so the articles published in the last 10 years on "effects on childhood bullying on adult behavior" could be located. Four such most recent articles were selected to conduct a careful literature review, the findings from which have been presented below.
Sourander et al. (2007) in their study explored the predictive association between bullying and victimization at the age of 8 and development of psychiatric disorders in early adulthood. In support of their hypothesis, the authors present findings from literature that this is a significantly prevalent problem in American schools. It has been already known that bullying and victimization are associated with poorer family functioning, interparental violence, and parental maltreatment. There is a difference between the bully and the victims in that bullies are aggressive, hostile, and domineering; they are hyperactive, and they demonstrate little anxiety and insecurity. On the contrary, the victims are depressed, withdrawn, anxious, and insecure. They score higher on the psychosomatic scales. They demonstrate lower self-esteem, and they tend to be more cautious, sensitive, and quieter. The authors present findings from other studies that the bully victims tend to be more troubled in terms of future outcomes. Once bullied, they demonstrate high levels of verbal and physical aggression. Their externalizing and hyperactive behaviour are higher, but at the same time their depressivity, self-worth, academic competence, and social acceptance are lower. This study attempts to fill the gap that exists in prospective bullying. The authors report a Finnish study, where observations suggest that being bullied at childhood has future consequences. Bullying at age strongly predict criminality at adolescence. Such a study would be necessary since information about long-term effects of bullying in the childhood into the future adult life will have public health implications, and knowledge about these may lead to