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In fact, more than $66 billion is said to have been invested in school technology (QED, 2004). This unprecedented level of investment in educational technology has raised expectations of legislators and the public who have been looking for returns on this investment (Benton, 2002; CEO Forum, 1999, 2000), and therefore are calling for evidence regarding the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of technology especially in K-12 schools (Ringstaff & Kelley, 2002; Panel on Educational Technology, 1997; Melmed, 1995).
No child left behind (NCLB) requires states to demonstrate that "every student is technologically literate by the time the student finishes the eighth grade, regardless of the student's race, ethnicity, gender, family income, geographic location, or disability" (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). While NCLB has established an eighth-grade technology literacy requirement, the requirement is not a full statement of knowledge and skills students need nor does it include a mechanism for ensuring accountability (Kay & Honey, in press).
Educational funding has been found to be associated with student achievement (Lance (2001), Miller (2002), Siminitus (2002), and Whitington (2002). ...