Thus the phrase- "Homeland security"; this phrase may appear relatively new but was actually coined after a series of attacks against US and its nationals around the world during 1980s and 1990s.
The U.S. military now defines homeland security as "the preparation for, prevention of, deterrence of preemption of, defense against, and response to threats and aggressions directed toward U.S. territory, sovereignty, domestic population and infrastructure; as well as crisis management, consequence management, and other domestic civil support." (1) The definition has two important constituents namely homeland defense and civil support. Homeland defense is seen as the "protection of U.S. territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and critical infrastructure against external threats and aggression," whereas while civil support is described as "support to U.S. civil authorities for domestic emergencies, and for designated law enforcement and other activities." (2)
During the Clinton administration, homeland security was an important but passively discussed issue. By the time Clinton's term ended, the notion of homeland security revolves around "national missile defense, counterterrorism, WMD preparedness, consequence management of WMD events and protection against cyber attacks." (3) The three main components of any counterterrorism strategy would thus form the basis for the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. These components were later clearly identified by President Bush's National Strategy for Homeland Security as "1) prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; 2) reduce America's vulnerability to terrorism; and 3) minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur." (4)
If Clinton administration had basically been passive about national security, then Bush administration did nothing concrete either in the first few months of entering office. His early counterterrorism policy revolved around missile defense as National Security Advisor, Condoleezza Rice said in March of 2001:
Critical infrastructure protection is a critically important issue.... Today, the cyber economy is the economy.... virtually every vital service--water supply, transportation, energy, banking and finance, telecommunications, public health ... relies upon computers and the fiber-optic lines, switchers, and routers that connect them. Corrupt those networks, and you disrupt the nation. It is a paradox of our times: the very technology that makes our economy so dynamic and our military forces so dominating--also makes us more vulnerable.... Protecting our critical infrastructure is a classic national security problem. We want to deter action against us through prevention. Deterrence worked during the Cold War. It may not work here. (5)
Though early in January 2001, Rice had ordered a review of potential threat from external forces including Al-Qaeda, there was a serious lack of concerted effort. Funds were not properly allocated and intelligence services miserably failed to assess the potential, size and impact of enemy attacks. After the attacks, the House Subcommittee on Terrorism prepared a report and found that "the failure of the intelligence community (IC) to provide adequate forewarning was affected by