Runology in Scandinavia - Essay Example

Only on StudentShare

Extract of sample
Runology in Scandinavia

This alphabet uses only sixteen runes, and in many cases one symbol is used to represent many sounds.
Even when dealing with the Younger Futhark, there are several related but slightly different alphabets that vary by place and time. These can be roughly divided into two main types: the first is the "long-branch" or normal Younger Futhark, which are sometimes referred to as the "Danish runes". There is also a variant known as the "short-twig runes" in which the forms are simpler, also called the "Norwegian-Swedish runes".
"Shorthand" versions of these futharks appeared, as did hybrid variants. What exact form was used depended on exactly what date one is looking at, and what region. By the Middle Ages, as the language changed and so did the runic alphabet. Gradually symbols were changed, and new symbols adopted, resulting in a 16-rune alphabet plus extensions.
Most of the surviving Viking Age runic inscriptions come from rune-stones, which were erected as grave markers, memorials, and cenotaphs most often. By the middle ages in Scandinavia, runes came to be used occasionally to record Latin inscriptions (approximately 10% of all medieval runic inscriptions are Latin) and these usually invocations of saints or prayers.
Occasionally runes are found on various wooden items such as crosses. ...
Download paper


There have been many theories launched over who created the runes. Some of these theories have more supporters than others, but they all have one thing in common. None of these theories can be proved 100%. No runic inscriptions, as we know the runes, can be dated with certainty to before 200 AD.
Author : ernserrhett

Related Essays

Agriculture in Scandinavia
Agriculture in Scandinavia and the rest of Europe is known to have arrived from South West Asia in pre-historic times in the form of foreign colonists and their domesticated animals, seeds, and potted plants.Study of transition in Southern Scandinavia became easier and more exciting as the region proved to be a laboratory of human prehistory.There are evidences that the early cultures in Middle East around 8000 BC used wild cereals for food which led to cultivated wheat, use of pottery With the fantastic archeological sources and research combined with impressive chronology, Northern Europe,...
7 pages (1757 words) Essay
Climate Anomalies and Hemispheric Charts
A negative sensible heat flux indicates that the air is warmer than the earth's surface. Heat must be transported from the air to the earth's surface to reach equilibrium. A zero flux value is indicative of the equilibrium between the air and earth's surface (ARM, 2005).
25 pages (6275 words) Essay
Simpson (1967, p11) propounds, "In medieval Scandinavian languages, a vikingr is a pirate, a freebooter who seeks wealth either by ship-borne raids on foreign coasts or by waylaying more peaceful seafarers in home waters. There is also an abstract noun viking, meaning 'the act of going raiding overseas'". This definition hints to the historic approach of delineating the term Viking by referring to them as the looters and raiders of the lands of Scandinavia. It takes one to an era in history when Europe was under constant attack of these raiders often referred to as Vikings. These people were...
3 pages (753 words) Essay
Why it is so difficult to evaluate the influence of women on Viking society
The saga writers of the 13th century belonged to an oral tradition, which embraced written culture like the Holy Bible. It is characteristic of Scandinavian or Norse societies, that they had never had any hierarchical form of governing. But Viking societies now had a king, who served as a ruler, and men were the dominant group in the society and the family. All these social aspects were then highlighted in epics and romance. As a result, saga writing became a political act in gender relations under this situation. The ideological view of the binary opposition formed a kind of "stereoscopic"...
8 pages (2008 words) Essay
WWII and the Cold war
The devastation of Europe during World War II spread from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean,with many like France and Germany left it utter ruin.The U.S. government insisted that unless a strong capitalist economy backed by democratic governments were supported they would be prime targets for the perceived aggression of Soviet Union This political concept was known as the Truman Doctrine and the economic aid package was known as the Marshall Plan. Secretary of State George Marshall devised a rebuilding plan to aid much of Europe, sending $13 billion dollars over the course of four years to...
2 pages (502 words) Essay
Climate Anomalies for a Particular Region
The waves are disturbed by two forcing, namely, Orographic forcing and Thermal forcing. Orographic forcing, more relevant in northern hemisphere owing to dominating surface topography with Rocky Mountain and Tibetan plateau, relates to planetary waves generated due to the compression and expansion of air columns, leading to vortex stretching which can be balanced by the vorticity advection (Dickinson, 1978). Thermal forcing, varying with seasonal change in thermal effect, relates to generation of planetary waves by the adiabatic heating and cooling due to rising and sinking air motions; this...
18 pages (4518 words) Essay
Multiculturalism and cultural policy in Scandinavia
As a prescriptive phenomenon, it refers to settlement policy that works towards promoting the perspective of institutionalizing cultural diversity. This paper expounds on this concept of multiculturalism and cultural diversity, with Sweden being a case study (CRAFT, 2011).
11 pages (2761 words) Essay
Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you! Try us!