1). The innovative ways of using mass-production goods are conceptualized as 'styles' which are expressive of the individualities/identities of the users. In the construction of lifestyles, the use-value of an object of consumption is secondary to the object's signifying effects, to its 'sign-value', organized around what Hebdige calls, 'a theology of appearances' (1993:89, p.1). Within this cultural politics, beyond the individual styles, social collectives are deemed to be constituted of a 'series of narrowly defined markets, targets, consumption, taste and status groups' (Hebdige 1999, p. 1).
The concept of identity is useful for conceptualizing interrelations between tastes, social and organizational factors, and consumption. Anthony Giddens (1991, p.37) pointed out that in typical societies, lifestyles, social roles, relationships, and daily activities were monitored by religion, ascribed status, and accepted practices. Post-modernism created more scope for people to establish their own identities by adopting lifestyles, self-manifestations, and self-concepts that have symbols, pleasures, and values significant to them. ...