No hypotheses were stated. The research question was not categorically stated but could be inferred from the background given, and it is this: What factors influence the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood
Design of the study. This is a case-control study that was conducted of health care workers with occupational, percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood. The case patients were those who became seropositive after exposure to HIV, as reported by national surveillance systems in France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The controls were health care workers in a prospective surveillance project who were exposed to HIV but did not seroconvert.
The dependent variable may be said to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood. The independent variables may be the factors influencing this risk
Subjects. The study population included 33 case patients (23 from the United States, 5 from France, 3 from the United Kingdom, and 2 from Italy) and 679 controls (from 190 of the U.S. health care facilities involved in the CDC Needlestick Study). Case patients were health care workers who had a documented occupational, percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood by a needle stick or a cut with a sharp object, HIV seroconversion that was temporally associated with the exposure, and no other reported concurrent exposure to HIV. Control subjects were health care workers with a documented occupational, percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood who were HIV seronegative at the time of exposure and at least six months later.
Case patients were identified through reports to national surveillance systems for occupationally acquired HIV infection that were operated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with state and local health departments in the United States; the Rseau National de Sant Publique in France; the Centro di Riferimento AIDS in Italy; and the Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre in the United Kingdom. Controls were identified through reports to a voluntary CDC surveillance project, Prospective Evaluation of Health Care Workers Exposed to Blood of Patients Infected with HIV, also called the CDC Needlestick Study. This project has enrolled health care workers from approximately 300 health care institutions in the United States since 1983.
All case patients reported in the United States by August 1994 who were exposed after 1987 and all controls exposed after 1987 whose six-month follow-up evaluation was completed as of August 1994 were studied.
Findings. In answer to the research question, the following are the findings: Logistic-regression analysis based on 33 case patients and 665 controls showed that significant risk factors for seroconversion were deep injury (odds ratio_15; 95 percent confidence interval, 6.0 to 41), injury with a device that was visibly contaminated with the source patient's blood (odds ratio_6.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 21), a procedure involving a needle placed in the
Cardo, D.M., Culver, D.H. Ciesielski, C. A., Srivastava, P.U., Marcus, R., Abiteboul, D., Hepstonstall, J. Ipppolito, G., Lot, F., McKibben, P.S., Bell, D.M. et al. A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure…
Many workers in organizational settings are affected also by a variety of factors obtaining in their environment, the corporate culture and their relationships with peers, supervisors, and the higher or senior management. Various theories have been proposed with regards to management of people offered by psychologists, academicians, organizational experts and business leaders.
References and in-text citations were evidence of experience in nursing, gerontology and research, especially the lead researcher, Suzuki.
b) Title: The main purpose was stated, though 'functional disabilities' or gender differences were not in it, and the term "relationship between" was.
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Introduction: Considering the fact that this reviewer's current practice is Radiology, there is considerable exposure to radiologic investigations such as mammography and ultrasonography as routine imaging studies both for screening and diagnostic purposes of breast cancer.
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446). The objective of the study was to help in the improvement of planning for appropriate health and social needs for these varying groups. Precise aims and criteria are set out in the abstract with 4 key factors: Place of birth (PLOB), drugs, alcohol and mental health.
Psychologists test all assumptions to find out the truth. This truth often challenges people because it does not correspond to their beliefs. Beauty standards, gender roles, expression of emotions are influenced by
der patients and on how to provide significant insights into the development of other new walking dependence as it relates to the nursing care of the hospitalized patients. In addition, the data used was sufficiently analyzed since the researcher came up with concepts and themes
2011). The problem is significant to patients because hip fracture is the worst of all fractures attributable to osteoporosis. The hip fracture significantly influences the survival amongst the osteoporosis, life quality and enormous
In the article “Examining WeChat users’ motivation, trust, attitudes, and positive word-of-mouth: Evidence from China,” the authors Che Hui Lien and Yang Cao raise the issue of social media’s effect on personality. They had chosen the case of WeChat users in China. In particular, the authors refer to the importance of social media.
2 pages (500 words)Book Report/Review
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