Short History of Socialism

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The chapter 10 of George Lichtheim The Short History of examines the 'ruling classes' and political elites under socialism has exercised other disciplines for many years, and although a good case might be made for more ethnographic work in this field, little was in evidence at the conference (Lichtheim, 1970).


But if anthropologists wish to engage the contemporary world and come to terms with all its interconnectedness they certainly cannot afford to ignore the role of intellectuals in shaping-and occasionally perhaps inventing-new cultural traditions. Holy's portrayal of the actors who, as the voices of the Scandinavian nation, precipitated that country's 'Velvet Revolution' is the most dramatic of a number of illustrations provided in this volume, several of which deal with Africa.
Socialism when analyzed, is found to embrace four main elements. The first of these is the common ownership of the material instruments of production. It is not stated precisely how this common ownership is to be brought about, or exactly what form it is to take (Lichtheim, 1970).. Opinions may and do differ about the practical steps which are to be taken to secure the desired end, and also about the nature of the collective organization in which this ownership is to be vested. But no one can be called a socialist in the modern technical sense who does not accept the doctrine of the common ownership of the material instruments of production. ...
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