The premise of the poem was even used in soap advertisements that encouraged "white people to teach cleanliness to other races" (Pears soap ad. 1890's)
American foreign policy seems to follow the suggestions in Kipling's poem. The United States has sent troops to several countries that were in the midst of civil war. It seems as if the United States has taken on the role of world police force and food aid provider to poorer nations. Often times the United States has used force to destroy the infrastructures of other countries to turn around and flood that country with aid to rebuild that same infrastructure. America is very much the richer nation taking care of the poorer nations. The American's have taken on the "white man's burden" by spreading democracy and tackling human rights issues.
Progressivism in the United State began as a political solution to many of society's ills such as child labor laws and woman's suffrage. The most notable person in the progressive party was Theodore Roosevelt (u-s-history.com). The progressive party advocated for many human rights reforms such as lower taxes for persons with lower incomes, nationalizing utilities and introduced collective bargaining and farm relief. The progressive party may have been popular among black Americans as they benefited the most from these reforms.