Before coming on to the main obstacles behind restoring peace in post-Saddam Iraq and the ways and methods to overcome them, we should first try to understand Iraq as an nation, its entity, its history, its people, its religion, ethnicity and everything related to that country to understand things in the right perspective.
In and after several stages over the next 12 years or so, Iraq attained its independence in the year 1932. Iraq was proclaimed as a republic in the year 1958, but in actual a series of military strongmen ruled the country until 2003. The last one known of them was Saddam Hussain. Iraq also had territorial disputes with Iran that led to an inconclusive and costly war for almost an entire decade from the year 1980 to 1988). In the year August 1990, Iraq captured Kuwait with the sole reason of capturing the major chunk of oil trade in the Middle East but was later on expelled by the US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War that happened during January-February 1991. It followed in the liberation of Kuwait, the UN Security Council (UNSC) put stringent conditions on Iraq to scrap all it's weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles. (Tripp)
The UNSC also pressurized Iraq to allow UN verification inspectors to inspect it's suspected nuclear facilities and centers for making of weapons of mass-destruction like biological weapons. Iraq didn't cede to and complied with the UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years that in turn led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in the year March 2003 and the permanent ouster of the Saddam Hussain regime from Iraq. Under a UNSC mandate the coalition forces are keeping a vigil in Iraq trying to keep the democracy alive and helping to provide security to the common people and to support the freely elected democratic government. (Frontline)
Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Although looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined economy-rebuilding efforts, economic activity is beginning to pick up in areas recently secured by the US military surge. Oil exports are around levels seen before Operation Iraqi Freedom, and total government revenues have benefited from high oil prices. (CIA The World Fact Book,Iraq)
It is true that there has been a lot of rebuilding effort in Iraq with the intervention and aid of quite a few International Institutions and Countries and Iraq has made some progress to rebuild the institutions that it needs to implement and reap the rewards of the new economic policy. In this direction Iraq has also negotiated an agreement for the reduction of debt with the Paris Club and also a new Stand-By Arrangement with the IMF. Iraq has also received pledges for $13.5 billion in foreign aid for the period spanning 2004-07 from outside of the US, and also more than $33 billion in total pledges from all the aid givers. An understanding was reached with the current regime in Iraq in May 2007 to integrate Iraq into the regional and global economy without any apparent prejudices. The current Iraqi government is also trying to pass laws in this regard to strengthen the Iraqi economy. Among others the major legislations that the Iraqi government wants passed includes a hydrocarbon Law and to establish a modern legal framework that can allow Iraq to develop its inherent and most potent resources to its advantage and a revenue sharing law to divide the oil revenue in a equitable manner for the balanced development of all the regions. However, both these measures have been marred by the internal controversies and ...
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