Before coming on to the main obstacles behind restoring peace in post-Saddam Iraq and the ways and methods to overcome them, we should first try to understand Iraq as an nation, its entity, its history, its people, its religion, ethnicity and everything related to that country to understand things in the right perspective.
In and after several stages over the next 12 years or so, Iraq attained its independence in the year 1932. Iraq was proclaimed as a republic in the year 1958, but in actual a series of military strongmen ruled the country until 2003. The last one known of them was Saddam Hussain. Iraq also had territorial disputes with Iran that led to an inconclusive and costly war for almost an entire decade from the year 1980 to 1988). In the year August 1990, Iraq captured Kuwait with the sole reason of capturing the major chunk of oil trade in the Middle East but was later on expelled by the US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War that happened during January-February 1991. It followed in the liberation of Kuwait, the UN Security Council (UNSC) put stringent conditions on Iraq to scrap all it's weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles. (Tripp)
The UNSC also pressurized Iraq to allow UN verification inspectors to inspect it's suspected nuclear facilities and centers for making of weapons of mass-destruction like biological weapons. Iraq didn't cede to and complied with the UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years that in turn led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in the year March 2003 and the permanent ouster of the Saddam Hussain regime from Iraq. ...