There is a period in every nation’s history when political turbulence reigns. These are periods when governments experience economic, social and political crises, which could be the result of contemporary development or a change in political system. More specifically, political instability could be attributed on several factors such as industrialization, population growth, “the revolution of rising expectations” or even international tensions. “Some social scientists have followed Aristotle's view that political instability is generally the result of a situation in which the distribution of wealth fails to correspond with the distribution of political power and have echoed his conclusion that the most stable type of political system is one based on a large middle class. Others have adopted Marxist theories of economic determinism that view all political change as the result of changes in the mode of production. Still others have focused on governing elites and their composition and have seen in the alienation of the elite from the mass the prime cause of revolutions and other forms of violent political change.”
Vibrant democracies in Europe have undergone same internal political conflicts, which have brought down governments and have shaken political systems. France, Germany and Italy have experienced their own respective political upheavals in differing timelines in their history. This made it possible for us to improve our ability to describe and analyze any pattern, situations or factors that brought about conflicts in European political system.