tly to Europe and propose caution regarding an trusting and original alteration of concepts derived in the North American context (Mayrhofer & Brewster, 1996).
Much of the early studies on international staffing was largely descriptive, prescriptive, and lacking in analytical rigor (Dowling et al., 1999). One European critique (Brewster & Scullion, 1997) argued that staffing policies are often developed in isolation from other areas of expatriation policy and fail to connect expatriate selection to the MNEs international business strategy. Researchers are finding more variety in approaches to staffing and other activities (Scullion & Starkey, 2000; Petrovic et al., 2000). Drawing on the speculative concepts of the resource based view, European researchers have endeavored to explain the strategic measurement of expatriate selection. Bonache and Fernandez (1999) explain the linkage between expatriates and spirited advantage by significance the significance of the relocating of tacit knowledge to new markets, through relocating teams rather than just: individual managers and Bonache and Brewster (2001) discover the role of expatriates as instrument of knowledge transfer.
Recent European studies indicates the significance of country specific factors and indicates distinction between countries in international staffing practices. Studies indicates a higher level of mother country nationals when enriching distance is higher (Boyacigiller, 1990) and that subsidiaries in Asian and Latin American countries working the largest percentage of PCNs, with subsidiaries in Europe and the U.S.A. utilize fewer. For example, direct expatriate management is mostly well-built in the Far Eastern or Latin American subsidiaries of Japanese and German operating in the automobile or electronic industries, and much less important in the subsidiaries of U.S., French, and British MNEs located in Scandinavian or Anglo-Saxon countries and operating in the food or paper industries.