Environmental Health Science - Reducing Air Pollution through the use of Oxygenated Gasoline

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Prolonged exposure which might be due to pumping gasoline, driving automobiles, or working in gas stations have reported having headaches, nausea, dizziness, and mental confusion, chemical pneumonitis, CNS…

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description should include a description of 1) who (or what) was studied, 2) what type of study was used (toxicology or epidemiology, and which study design if the latter), 3) how exposure occurred and 4) one toxic endpoint. Use your own words; do not copy from the paper or abstract.
Scientists for the State of California, the Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, UC Davis, reviewed existing literature on toxic effects of MTBE to freshwater organisms, and new information was generated on chronic, developmental toxicity in fish, and potential toxicity of MTBE on the California resident species. Based on the time of exposure and endpoint measured, MTBE was found to be toxic to various aquatic organisms at concentrations of 57-> 1000 mg/l (invertebrates), and 388-2600 mg/l (vertebrates). Developmental effects in medaka (Oryzias latipes) were not observed up to a concentration of 480 mg/l, and all fish hatched and were found to be performing feeding and swimming in a normal manner. Bacterial assays peformed proved to be most sensitive to toxicity to Salmonella typhimurium measured at 7.4 mg/l within 48 h. when observed for 5 days micro algae, showed decreased growth at 2400 and 4800 mg/l. This study concludes that MTBE does not appear to bioaccumulate in fish and is rapidly excreted or metabolized. Although the available data suggests that at environmental MTBE exposure levels found in surface waters (< 0.1 mg/l) it is likely not acutely toxic to aquatic life. However, more information is needed on chronic and sub lethal effects before we can eliminate the possibility of risk to aquatic communities at currently detected concentrations
Exposure in human beings might occur through contact with skin, breathing exhaust fumes, consumption of contaminated water. For example: breathing fumes while pumping gasoline or in polluted city air, drinking or swimming in contaminated water and receiving MTBE treatment for gallstones.
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