However, employees still complain that they are abused verbally, intimidated, and, in general, made to feel inadequate. Situations in which employees are subjected to verbal attacks and to harassing and intimidating behaviors occur frequently in organizations (Namie & Namie, 2003; Rayner, Hoel & Cooper, 2003; Hochheiser, 1998, Hornstein, 1996). Incidents that have non-fatal endings leave employees frustrated; some quit their jobs or develop major health problems. Researchers who recently began examining these workplace behaviors conclude that the deliberate and repeated verbal aggression coupled with ridicule or harassing and intimidating strategies cause mental and physical harm which they regard as a complex phenomenon—workplace bullying (Middleton-Moz & Zawadski, 2002; Davenport, Schwartz, & Elliott, 2002;
They adopted the term “workplace bullying” from their counterparts in England, Europe, Canada, Australia, and other countries around the world where research has led to legal and legislative interventions to highlight and prevent workplace bullying. However, American researchers have been slower than their counterparts around the world to investigate the nature of workplace bullying. While research into workplace problems in America has led to legal and legislative action to control assault, sexual harassment, stalking, and discrimination, workplace bullying has not been recognized in America as a unique phenomenon. In fact, the United States is viewed as being “at least twenty years behind [other countries] on focusing on workplace bullying” (Namie & Namie, 2003, p. 99). For some time now, requests for relief from the workplace bullying have not been very successful in the courts (Yamada, 2000).
This interest in workplace bullying has generated studies about “the types of bullies that exist, the tactics