unbroken line of authority that links all persons in an organization and shows who reports to whom while illustrating the authority structure of the organization. This whole process is an example of effective practice of managing by the managers of any organization. Thus, ‘Management’ can be defined as, the process in which managers carry out activities of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling to the achievement of organization’s overall goals and objectives1.
Although different scholars and theorists have defined the ‘Management’ in their own meaningful perspective, Henri Fayol – the unarguably founder of modern management – has described it as, “A theoretical subject and practice of performing and integrating managerial skills2”. According to him, management can be classified into four major functions. These functions are as planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
Planning: Planning includes identifying goals, objectives, methods, resources needed to carry out methods, responsibilities and dates for completion of tasks. Examples of planning are strategic planning, business planning, project planning, staffing planning, advertising and promotions planning, etc. It is the ongoing process of developing the business mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. It is the function of management, with which, management symbolizes and makes sure while directing employee efforts towards group and attainment of organizational goals. In this function, long-term success of an organization is attempted to be made sure by making it necessary to set immediate and long-term goals, while selecting the appropriate approaches for their accomplishment. By planning, managers try to find answers to questions where? What? How? Who? When? Why? etc. If we look at the example of Imran Khan3 – founder of a famous cancer hospital in Pakistan – answered these questions in the late eighties and planned day in and day ...