The causes of many problems, which parents and teachers face (the lowered cognitive activity, infringements in communication, restraint and the heightened shyness, or on the contrary, aggression and hyperactivity of children, etc.), lay in the early childhood. As matter of fact correction of these deformations at preschool and school age represents essential difficulties and demands much greater efforts and expenses, than their timely prevention.
High-grade development of a child in the early years setting demands an adequate and qualified psychological and pedagogical support from the professionals possessing corresponding qualification. However, nowadays there is a certain deficiency of such experts (psychologists and teachers) able to work with small children.
Today a great attention is paid to a principle of the account of individuality of each child. This principle predetermines the corresponding approach to education, especially in the age of from 3 till 7 years. At first sight, all children of the same age seem similar to each other, but at detailed observation over each of them, we are able to consider born or got particular features or deviations in their development. Some of them may and should be corrected and, on the contrary, observers should provide the best development to positive qualities of a child.
Not all adults working with children are involved in formal observation of the children. However, “all are observing and making judgments on a daily basis. Structured, purposeful observation is a vital tool for the educator. Through observation we can not only monitor young children and their learning, but we can monitor our own actions and reactions to situations” (Sutherland, 2005, p. 22).
Observation is one of the most widespread and accessible method of studying of children in early years setting development. Scientific observation is understood as a specially organized perception of