Shock at the cellular level - Essay Example

Extract of sample
Shock at the cellular level

Hypovolemic shock occurs when there is loss of blood or plasma, as in burns, hemorrhage and trauma. Septic shock occurs as a result of systemic microbial infection. Other types of shock have also been defined: distributive and obstructive (Schwarz, eMedicine). Distributive shock occurs when the normal peripheral vascular tone becomes inappropriately relaxed leading to relative hypovolemia. It is caused by anaphylaxis, neurologic injury, sepsis, and drug-related causes. Obstructive shock is seen in newborns with obstructive congenital heart disease like coarctation of aorta, interrupted aortic arch, and severe valvular stenosis (Schwarz, eMedicine). In older children and adults, rheumatic fever, subacute bacterial endocarditis, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can lead to direct obstruction of cardiac output (Schwarz, eMedicine).
1. Non-progressive stage: This is an initial stage where in the reflex mechanisms of the body are activated, thus maintaining normal perfusion of the vital organs. The various neuro-humoral mechanisms maintain the cardiac output and blood pressure. The hypothalamus situated in the brain secretes adrenocorticotrophic releasing hormone which in turn stimulates the adrenal or the suprarenal glands to secrete the catecholamines, aldosterone and the cortisol. Blood is diverted from the less vital to more vital organs like brain, heart and kidneys, heart rate increases to supply more blood quickly, blood pressure increases to supply blood efficiently, respiratory rate increases to get more oxygen from the atmosphere, glycogen stores in the liver and muscle are broken down to get more glucose (glycogenolysis) and beyond a certain level, glucose is formed from non-carbohydrate sources like fats and proteins (gluconeogenesis) (Ron de Kloet, p.187). In the heart, adrenaline causes increase in the heart rate and also the force of contraction leading to increased ...Show more

Summary

It is the final common pathway for a number of potentially lethal clinical events. It leads to systemic hypoperfusion caused by either decreased…
Author : martinthiel
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write a custom essay on your topic
"Shock at the cellular level"
with a personal 20% discount.
Find out more

Related Essays

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
While photosynthesis uses solar energy directly and stores it within chemical bonds cellular respiration releases this stored energy and makes it available to the plant when it needs the energy. That photosynthesis precedes cellular respiration is not surprising.
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
CELLULAR PATHOLOGY CERVICAL CYTOLOGY
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Cellular Phone Usage while Driving
In the multi-media age, people use cell phones and personal hand held computers to stay connected to work, friends and family while they are away from the home and office. David Curry (p 30 2003) notes "the issue that must be addressed before the cellular 'problem' is targeted by legislations is not whether cell phone use in a vehicle distracts the driver.
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
Cellular Respiration
The fuel molecules used by the cells include glucose, amino acids and fatty acids and the common electron acceptor or the oxidizing agent is the oxygen molecule. Organisms or cells that use molecular oxygen as the final electron acceptor are termed as aerobic, and those that do not are called as anaerobic.
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
Censorship and Shock Jocks
Apparently, "In making obscenity, indecency, and profanity determinations, context is keySubject matter alone is not sufficient to determine whether material is obscene, indecent, or profane."1 Without profanity, however, it could be argued that the FCC's challenges to these various radio talk show hosts are ruining artists' output.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
discuss the registered nurses role in the initial assessment, investigation and nursing management/ treatment of a patient with septic shock
creasing the mortality include early recognition of septic shock, resolution of the inflammatory response, elimination of the causative organism, and provision of supportive care. Septic shock is of great importance in intensive care medicine. The condition has a high risk
12 pages (3000 words) Essay
culture shock
This unfamiliarity with the new culture makes many of those who encounter it fail to understand the factors that influence conduct of local people so that they do not discern how they themselves should behave. When these people lose all
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Find out how much would it cost
to get a custom paper written by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT