This paper has as an objective the examination of the Spanish banking system and the determination of it having acquired the market structure of an oligopoly with years. This will be done through a deep literature review where major arguments will be analysed in order to arrive to a conclusion…
Globalization has brought about the integration of the world markets. In this sense the global market has tended to move towards a perfect and pure market structure as defined in the economic theory; however the exact form of global markets have remained far from the theoretical ideals of perfect and pure. Regardless of the product or service that is being studied; it is noticeable that all of a sudden the information flow has become more rapid, regulatory structures have been oriented more towards free market structures and the movement of capital and permission to access local markets has become freer. This has encouraged national businesses to aim to be global businesses and the global businesses to target national markets. However, the roughness in the control of market shares in the past has tended more towards monopolies but, structures have not stayed the same, these have become, in general, oligopolies. This aspect of globalisation has thus changed the very nature of competition and the markets will move forward into a new direction of perfect markets if globalisations are sustained and its true objective is achieved. The Banking industry is no exception. Competition in the banking sector depends largely upon the efficiency with which financial services are produced, the quality of financial service produced and the relative degree of innovation in the sector. (Claaessens and Laeven). This however depends upon how the banking sector competes with each other and what is the nature of the financial markets. This is important because the nature of the markets in the financial sector Banks enable consumers to do essential functions such as saving, investing and storing money or money equivalents. ...
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Deposit insurance is fixed and pays claim from a pool of funds to which every depository institution frequently contributes (Freixas & Rochet, 2008). However, this covers only a fixed maximum amount per account holder. Thus depository insurance is the measure taken by various banks to protect their client’s savings, either fully or partly to avoid the bank from returning.
The global crisis shook the very foundations of financial institutions and the stock market as share prices for small and large investment banks dropped significantly between mid 2007 and first quarter of 2008. Financial institutions lost nearly a third of their value in less than one year.
In the United States of America, their banking system is disjointed with each state having its own regulator and rules that govern the operations of the state subject to the National Banking act of 1863 (Miller, 2010). However, depending on the operations of a bank and the agreements and charter it has signed, its operations may be regulated by various states in America and by the Federal government.
With the dynamism in the current business environment such as increased costs of doing business and competition, business organizations and financial institutions seek for ways of reducing costs and increasing their productivity levels. Through consolidating by mergers and acquisitions, banks hope to curb these challenges.
The current banking system is mainly concentrated on paper transactions and various forms of wire transfers. Any money that needs to be sent is delayed in proportion to the farness of its destination at least in the case of paper transactions. This delays business deals and this delay is also known to have destroyed many lives.
It is said that the arbitrary nature of both risk classes and corresponding risk weights prompted the Basel Committee to seek to replace the Basel 1 risk-based capital regime by one with greater differentiation and risk sensitivity.
For this reason, the Basel Committee has proposed in the new Basel II Accord to base credit risk weightings either on a simple approach based on the ratings of external rating agencies or one of two approaches based on banks' own internal ratings.