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Describe the Physiology and Pharmacology of Hypertension - Essay Example

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Describe the Physiology and Pharmacology of Hypertension

The maintainenece of salt homeostasis on a typical 100meq sodium diet requires the kidney to reabsorb 99.5% of the filtered salt. The integrated system of ion channels , exchangers and the transporters performs the job. Filtered sodium (60%) is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule (PT) of the nephron, mainly by the sodium ion or hydorgen ion exchange. The rest 30% is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL) by Na-K-2CL cotransport. The seven percent is reclaimed by the sodium-chlorine cotransport in the distal convulated tubule. The final 2% s reabsorbed via the epethelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the cortial collecting tubule (CCT). The final stage is only although responsible for a small fraction of salt reabsorption, this site mainly determines for stability of the net salt balance. The decrease in the salt delivery to the thick ascending limb of Henle lead to increased secretion of the aspartyl protease renin, that results in increased secretion of the aspartyl protease renin, that results in increased formation of the short peptide hormone angiotensis II. This hormone binds to its specific G protein-coupled receptor in the adrenal glomerulaosa inducing secretion of aldosterone. Aldosterone, the principal mineralocorticoid steroid hormone binds to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) that leads to the intiation of the sequence of the events to increased activity of the ENac and increased salt reabsorption. (Lifton RP, 2001). To establish long term determination of blood pressure, research was carried out in the families that have history high or severely low pressure and it was identified that the mutations in many steps of the above mantioned pathway is the main cause. Mutations increase renal salt reabsorption raises blood pressure and those that diminish salt reabsorption lower blood pressure. The pathophysiologic link between ...Show more

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It is considered to be a substantial public health problem, which affects about 25% of adult populations in the industrialized world. This disorder leads to many others…
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