The major schools of thought can be broken down into biocentrism, sentientism, ratiocentrism and anthropomorphism (weak and strong). In attempting to discover which of these views is most justified, it is necessary to understand the basic ideas each school of thought represents.
Biocentrism is, roughly speaking, a system in which the criterion for inherent worth is based upon the simple-seeming criterion of whether one lives or not. Because all living things have the right to exist, we, as thinking beings, hold moral responsibility to ensure that we do not interfere with this right. “[Taylor] contends that in addition to our moral obligations toward our fellow humans, we also owe duties to wild living things in their own right … He agrees with Goodpaster’s argument that one can deny that non-humans have rights and yet hold that they are moral patients toward whom moral agents have duties and responsibilities” (Kocer, 2001). Being the center of a life force is grounds enough to fulfill to the biocentrist viewpoint, but this introduces problems as one must consider that all life forms must hold inherent worth equally – the human as well as the cockroach – despite obvious differences in understanding and awareness.
As even Taylor hints, there must be something more to the question than simply the idea that one respirates and reproduces. This is where the ideas of sentientism arise. While philosophers such as Singer suggest that this term is applied to any creature that demonstrates capacity to feel pleasure or pain, “the term ‘sentient’ refers more broadly to consciousness of something or other, rather than to consciousness of pleasure and pain specifically” (Jamieson, 2003: 192). However, when it is applied in this sense, it is usually limited to the view of something being able to express it is feeling pleasure or pain. Under this view, things gain inherent ...
Cite this document
(“Individualism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/370539-individualism
(Individualism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 2)
“Individualism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 2”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/370539-individualism.
Firstly, this essay will attempt to portray individualism as a function of the assimilated society in which the United States has claimed to be for over two centuries. Secondly, the idea of individualism will be assessed through the lens of the democratic process and the way that the two party system within the United States actually reduces the level of individualism and expression that a given individual might be able to express in a system that adopted a more parliamentary /multiple party system of governance.
Moreover, individualism has led to the rise of individualists who believe that people should be allowed to obtain their desires and goals. Therefore, self-reliance or independence is birthed. Additionally, the goals or an individual surpass that of a society or the state.
They have also indicated that there is lack of individualism in the society and also bicker that reexamining individualism in the society will stand out to be the solution to the issues of the society. This paper will explore the different views that the philosophers have based on the forms and will further cite the arguments as presented by the individuals.
In their opinion the power of society is limited by the inalienable, individual rights of man. (Individualism). On the other hand collectivism refers to a political or economic system in which the means of production and the distribution of goods and services are vested in the state (Collectivism).
Human quest to understand the hidden aspects of life paved way for millions of ideas that ultimately transformed into beliefs. The beliefs were the main driving factors behind the strange actions and their consequences;
Individualism became part of American culture as it is taught at home when children are still growing up. It is reinforced as a positive value by American society thereby cementing it as part of American culture. And the continuous practice of individualism