J. Acre realized that “there is a need for more research on critical pedagogy and elementary school practices” (Arce). “Critical Pedagogy is a teaching approach that attempts to help students question and challenge domination, and the beliefs and practices that dominate. In other words, it is a theory and practice of helping students achieve critical consciousness” (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, 2009). It is concerned with “how education can provide individuals with the tools to better themselves and strengthen democracy, to create a more egalitarian and just society, and thus to deploy education in a process of progressive social change” (21st Century Schools , 2004).
Arce observed that the foci of previous researches are “prosocial education, whole language theory and classroom practices, learning conditions and bilingualism and language acquisition” (Arce). On the other hand, there are only a few studies that “demonstrate the application of critical pedagogy as it relates to elementary school bilingual students” (Arce). Most of these related studies “address questions of student learning, whole language instruction, and relationships between schooling and the sociocultural process” (Arce). Arce realized to conduct such a study and he made use of a First Grade Two way Spanish Classroom as a participatory study.
The second of these two studies is by S.P. Gillian which is “An Assessment of the Cross-Cultural Training Needs of South Carolina Counselors”. He mentioned that there are already a lot of studies on cross-cultural counseling to the point that they point to different findings and conclusion. His study then is not in a new arena but it is unique in a way that it focuses on the areas that are yet to be dug in. “The overall aim of [the] present study is to (a) bring attention to areas of need counselors have with respect to cross-cultural counseling, (b) sensitize counselor education program administrator to these needs for